The Atlantic Liners 1925-1970


Front Cover and Spine Plus, The Atlantic Liners 1925-70 by Frederick Earl Emmons, 1972.

Front Cover and Spine Plus, The Atlantic Liners 1925-70 by Frederick Earl Emmons, 1972. GGA Image ID # 205364d09e


From the Inside DJ Flap

THE ATLANTIC LINERS will be cherished by all the millions of Americans who love the sea. Frederick Emmons sketches the histories of every ocean liner that sailed between the United States and Europe between 1925 and 1970.

The 1920s were golden years for ocean liners, whereas during the 1930s, the depression hurt them badly. During the war years 1939-45, almost all ocean liners were used as transport ships for the armies of all the nations at war. In the 1950s and 1960s, the development of commercial air travel further decimated the ranks of the ocean liners so that by 1970, their glory was only a shadow of what it had once been.

This book is more than just a souvenir of a more opulent, leisurely era than our own; it is a valuable reference book that contains all pertinent information about the mighty fleets of ocean liners that, for many years, played a dominant role in transatlantic travel.



It is not the purpose of this book to attempt a history of the North Atlantic liners since the subject has been thoroughly covered in great detail in the past. Instead, it is hoped that the illustrations and brief biographies of the various ships will serve to recall to ship lovers and former passengers the appearance and characteristics of ships now vanished from the sea and to serve as a comprehensive, if somewhat abbreviated, record of all the vessels in service on the Atlantic in the past forty-five years.

In this connection, adding a few words on the background of events that have made the Atlantic passenger trade the most populous and lucrative seaway in history seems pertinent.

Since the time of Columbus, men have braved the perils of the Western Ocean to find fame and fortune. The voyages of discovery and exploration were followed by the ships of the early colonists, whose numbers eventually swelled to the tide of emigrants, which reached its flood in the early years of this century.

Of necessity, these people, over thirty million of them, traveled by ship. They came to the New World for many reasons, but essentially in search of a better life: to escape wars, famine, religious persecution, and hopeless poverty.

They lined the rails of the emigrant ships, straining for their first sight of the Statue of Liberty in New York harbor. In 1907 alone, a million and a quarter of them poured through the lofty halls of the Immigration Station at Ellis Island to finally reach the promised land.

The outbreak of the First World War brought this emigrant flow to an abrupt and tragic halt. At its end, the principal British steamship lines were sorely depleted by four years of U-boat warfare. The victorious Allies confiscated the great pre-war German fleets and vanished temporarily from the maritime scene.

A feverish construction activity ensued to replace the lost cargo and satisfy the renewed demand for shipping. However, the expectations upon which the post-war shipbuilding programs were based were nullified by the passage in 1923 of the Dillingham Immigration Act, setting quotas based on national origin and effectively marking the end of the mass emigrant movement.

1925 was, therefore, a year of change for the shipping lines of the North Atlantic. This loss of the immigrant trade was beginning to be offset by a movement in the opposite direction, the increasing tide of tourism. The character of the ships started to change accordingly.

Another series of events was a tiny cloud on the shipping horizon: the early attempts to fly the Atlantic, highlighted by Charles Lindbergh's epic flight from New York to Paris in May of 1927 and the flight of the Graf Zeppelin a year later.

Then, in the fall of 1929, the New York stock market crashed to usher in a period of worldwide economic depression, which was to have a devastating effect on shipping everywhere.

Nevertheless, the years between 1929 and 1935 were years of international competition for maritime prestige, the era of the highly publicized express liner.

During this period, the Norddeutscher Lloyd liners BREMEN and EUROPA,
Canadian Pacific's EMPRESS OF BRITAIN, the Italian Line's REX and CONTE D1 SAVOIA, the French Line's NORMANDIE, and Cunard's QUEEN MARY vied in turn as the latest, largest, fastest, or most spectacularly luxurious.

The handwriting was on the wall, however. In 1937, the first transatlantic mail service was begun, and two years later, the world was once again at war; a war in which bombers were flown across the Atlantic regularly, and the wholesale sinkings began all over again. Of the seven magnificent express liners, only two survived.

The post-war period saw a build-up in tourist travel, which increased yearly, more than doubling in a decade. But now, a new factor had entered the picture. In the 1950s, transatlantic passengers traveling by air increased from thirty to seventy percent of the total. In October 1958, the first Pan American jet took off from New York to shorten the crossing time to a few hours, and the jet age began.

The shipping companies, fighting for their existence, began to explore the possibilities of long-range cruising, made feasible by the increased leisure and wealth of the post-war prosperity.

Unprofitable services were abandoned, older ships laid up, and new ships were adapted to cruising needs. Unfortunately for American-flag passenger shipping, never healthy economically despite government subsidies, the continuing upward spiral of costs eventually forced the transatlantic liners from the seas, and the "Blue Riband" holder UNITED STATES today lies idle at Newport News.

The 1970 Shipping Guide lists 28 liners engaged in the North Atlantic trade, making a total of 286 crossings during the year. However, just six ships sail on over half of these crossings. At least eight make but one round voyage during the year, usually incidental to their seasonal schedule of cruises.

Flying, though it can never match a sea voyage as a travel experience, has two obvious advantages: relatively low fares and significantly reduced travel time, and the airplane will certainly continue to carry people across the ocean in ever larger numbers. Today, charter flights are available at even lower rates, and supersonic airliners will cut present flight times in half one day.

This competition and ever-increasing operational costs threaten to mark the end of a maritime era. Passenger vessels being built today are designed for the requirements of long-range cruising service with emphasis on their function as floating resorts. The great Atlantic liners, like the clipper ships before them, are slowly being driven out of existence by the technology of our times.

Frederick Emmons,
Los Angeles, California



  • Foreword
  • Explanatory Notes


  • Cunard Line, Anchor Line, White Star Line, Dominion Line, Red Star Line, Atlantic Transport Line, Leyland Line Canadian, Pacific Donaldson Line, Furness Warren Line, Royal Mail


  • United States Lines, American Export Isbrandtsen Lines


  • Navigazione Generale Italiana, Lloyd Sabaudo, Cosulich Line, Italian Line, Flotta Lauro, Sitmar Line, Grimaldi—Siosa Lines


  • Hamburg American Line, Norddeutscher Lloyd, Bernstein Line, Europe—Canada Line, German Atlantic Line


  • Cie. Generale Transatlantique, Fabre Line


  • Holland-America Line, Oranje Line


  • National Steam Navigation Co of Greece, Greek Line, Chandris Line


  • Swedish American Line


  • Norwegian America Line


  • Scandinavian American Line, Baltic American Line


  • Cia. Trasatlántica Española


  • Gdynia—America Line


  • Zim Lines


  • Baltic Steamship Co


  • Home Lines, Incres Line, Arosa Line




  • Canadian Pacific, Donaldson Line


  • United States Lines, Baltimore Mail Line, American Scantic Line


  • Holland-America Line, Oranje Line, Trans-Ocean Steamship Co


  • East Asiatic Company


  • Jugolinija Splosna Plovba


  • United Arab Maritime Co


  • The Twenty-Five Largest Ships


  • Record Passages: Vessels in service after 1925


  • Atlantic Liners in service before 1925; listed under later names


  • List of Sources
  • Index of Ships


Back Cover, The Atlantic Liners 1925-70 by Frederick Earl Emmons, 1972.

Back Cover, The Atlantic Liners 1925-70 by Frederick Earl Emmons, 1972. GGA Image ID # 20538cdde0



  • Baker, W.A. and Tre Tryckare: The Engine Powered Vessel
  • Bonsor, N.R.P.: North Atlantic Seaway
  • Dunn, Laurence: Passenger Liners 1961, 1965; North Atlantic Liners; Ship Recognition, Liners; Famous Liners of the Past, Belfast Built.
  • Gibbs, C.R. Vernon: Passenger Liners of the Western Ocean; British Passenger Liners of the Five Oceans.
  • Isherwood, J.H.: Steamers of the Past; Sea Breezes Famous Ships.
  • Le Fleming, H.M.: Ships of the Holland-America Line
  • Musk, George: Canadian Pacific 1891-1961
  • Newell, Gordon: Ocean Liners of the Twentieth Century
  • Schwadtke, J. H.: Deutschlands Handelsflotte 1964, 1968
  • Smith, Eugene W.: Passenger Ships of the World, Past and Present
  • Talbot-Booth, E.C.: Merchant Ships 1942, 1949-50, 1959, 1963


  • Fairplay International Shipping Journal
  • Marine News
  • Merchant Ships, World Built
  • The Motor Ship
  • Sea Breezes
  • Ships Illustrated


List of Ships Referenced in the Atlantic Liners 1925-1970


▓▓▓ "A" ▓▓▓

  1. Adriatic
  2. Alaunia
  3. Albert Ballin
  4. Albertic
  5. Alesia
  6. Alexandr Pushkin
  7. Alfonso XIII
  8. America (I)
  9. America (II)
  10. American Banker
  11. American Farmer
  12. American Importer
  13. American Merchant
  14. American Shipper
  15. American Trader
  16. American Traveler
  17. Amerikanis
  18. Andania
  19. Andrea Doria
  20. Antonia
  21. Aquitania
  22. Arabic
  23. Argentina
  24. Arkadia
  25. Arosa Kulm
  26. Arosa Sky
  27. Arosa Star
  28. Arosa Sun
  29. Ascania (Br)
  30. Ascania (It)
  31. Athenia
  32. Atlantic (Am)
  33. Atlantic (Pan)
  34. Augustus (I)
  35. Augustus (II)
  36. Aurania
  37. Ausonia


▓▓▓ "B" ▓▓▓

  1. Baltic
  2. Batory
  3. Beaverbrae
  4. Belgenland
  5. Berengaria
  6. Bergensfjord (I)
  7. Bergensfjord (II)
  8. Berlin (II)
  9. Berlin (III)
  10. Bled
  11. Bohinj
  12. Bovec
  13. Bremen (III)
  14. Bremen (IV)
  15. Bremen (V)
  16. Britannic
  17. Byron


▓▓▓ "C" ▓▓▓

  1. Caledonia
  2. Calgaric
  3. California
  4. Cameronia
  5. Canada (Br)
  6. Canada (Fr)
  7. Canberra
  8. Canopic
  9. Carinthia (I)
  10. Carinthia (II)
  11. Carmania (I)
  12. Carmania (II)
  13. Caronia (I)
  14. Caronia (II)
  15. Castel Felice
  16. Cedric
  17. Celtic
  18. Champlain
  19. Chicago
  20. City of Baltimore
  21. City of Hamburg
  22. City of Havre
  23. City of Newport News
  24. City of Norfolk
  25. Cleopatra
  26. Cleveland
  27. Colombo
  28. Columbia (Br)
  29. Columbia (Grk)
  30. Columbus
  31. Constitution
  32. Conte Biancamano
  33. Conte Di Savoia
  34. Conte Grande
  35. Conte Rosso
  36. Conte Verde
  37. Covadonga
  38. Cristobal
  39. Colon
  40. Cristoforo
  41. Colombo



▓▓▓ "E" ▓▓▓

  1. Edam
  2. Edison
  3. Ellinis
  4. Empress of Australia (I)
  5. Empress of Australia (II)
  6. Empress of England
  7. Empress of France (I)
  8. Empress of France (II)
  9. Empress of Scotland (I)
  10. Empress of Scotland (II)
  11. Ernie Pyle
  12. Erria
  13. Estonia
  14. Europa (I)
  15. Europa (II)
  16. Europa (Pan)
  17. Excalibur (I)
  18. Excalibur (II)
  19. Excambion (I)
  20. Excambion (II)
  21. Exeter (I)
  22. Exeter (II)
  23. Exochorda (I)
  24. Exochorda (II)


▓▓▓ "F" ▓▓▓

  1. Fairsea
  2. Falstria
  3. Flandre
  4. France (II)
  5. France (III)
  6. Franconia (II)
  7. Franconia (III)
  8. Frederik VIII


▓▓▓ "G" ▓▓▓

  1. General Von Steuben
  2. George Washington
  3. Georgic
  4. Gerolstein
  5. Giulio Cesare (NGl)
  6. Giulio Cesare (Italia)
  7. Gripsholm (I)
  8. Gripsholm (II)
  9. Groote Beer
  10. Guadalupe


▓▓▓ "H" ▓▓▓

  1. Habana
  2. Hamburg (Hapag)
  3. Hamburg (Gal)
  4. Hansa
  5. Hanseatic (I)
  6. Hanseatic (II)
  7. Hellig Olav
  8. Homeland
  9. Homeric (Br)
  10. Homeric (Pan)
  11. Hrvatska


▓▓▓ "I" ▓▓▓

  1. Ile De France
  2. Ilsenstein
  3. Independence
  4. Irpinia
  5. Israel
  6. Italia
  7. Ivernia


▓▓▓ "J" ▓▓▓

  1. Jerusalem
  2. Juan Sebastian Elcano
  3. Jutlandia


▓▓▓ "K" ▓▓▓

  1. Karlsruhe
  2. Katoomba
  3. Klek
  4. Konigstein
  5. Kosciuszko
  6. Kungsholm (II)
  7. Kungsholm (III)
  8. Kungsholm (IV)


▓▓▓ "L" ▓▓▓

  1. La Bourdonnais
  2. La Guardia
  3. La Savoie
  4. Laconia
  5. Lafayette
  6. Lancastria
  7. Lapland
  8. Laurentia
  9. Laurentic
  10. Leerdam
  11. Leonardo da Vinci
  12. Letitia
  13. Leviathan
  14. Liberte
  15. Lismoria
  16. Lituania
  17. Lutzow


▓▓▓ "M" ▓▓▓

  1. Maasdam (III)
  2. Maasdam (IV)
  3. Magallanes
  4. Majestic
  5. Manhattan
  6. Marburn
  7. Marine Falcon
  8. Marine Flasher
  9. Marine Jumper
  10. Marlin Marlin
  11. Marine Perch
  12. Marine Shark
  13. Marine Tiger
  14. Marloch
  15. Marques de Comillas
  16. Mauretania (I)
  17. Mauretania (II)
  18. Media
  19. Megantic
  20. Melita
  21. Metagama
  22. Michelangelo
  23. Milwaukee
  24. Minnedosa
  25. Minnekahda
  26. Minnesota
  27. Minnetonka
  28. Minnewaska
  29. Montcalm
  30. Montclare
  31. Montnairn
  32. Montreal
  33. Montrose
  34. Montroyal
  35. Moréas
  36. München


▓▓▓ "N" ▓▓▓

  1. Nea Hellas
  2. Neptunia
  3. New York (Ger)
  4. New York (Grk)
  5. Newfoundland (I)
  6. Newfoundland (II)
  7. Nieuw Amsterdam (I)
  8. Nieuw Amsterdam (II)
  9. Noordam (I)
  10. Noordam (II)
  11. Normandie
  12. Nova Scotia (I)
  13. Nova Scotia (II)


▓▓▓ "O" ▓▓▓

  1. Oceanic
  2. Ohio
  3. Olympia
  4. Olympic
  5. Orbita
  6. Orca
  7. Orduña
  8. Oscar II
  9. Oslofjord (I)
  10. Oslofjord (II)


▓▓▓ "P" ▓▓▓

  1. Paris
  2. Parthia
  3. Patria
  4. Pennland
  5. Pilsudski
  6. Polonia
  7. President Harding
  8. President Roosevelt
  9. Presidente Wilson
  10. Prins Willem Van Oranje
  11. Prinses Irene
  12. Prinses Margriet
  13. Providence
  14. Pulaski


▓▓▓ "Q" ▓▓▓

  1. Queen Anna Maria
  2. Queen Elizabeth
  3. Queen Elizabeth 2
  4. Queen Frederica
  5. Queen Mary


▓▓▓ "R" ▓▓▓

  1. Raffaello
  2. Regina
  3. Reliance
  4. Republic
  5. Resolute
  6. Rex
  7. Rijndam
  8. Rochambeau
  9. Roma (Italia)
  10. Roma (Lauro)
  11. Rotterdam (IV)
  12. Rotterdam (V)
  13. Roussillon
  14. Ryndam


▓▓▓ "S" ▓▓▓

  1. Sagafjord
  2. St Louis
  3. Salah El Din
  4. Samaria
  5. Saturnia
  6. Saxonia
  7. Scanmail
  8. Scanpenn
  9. Scanstates
  10. Scanyork
  11. Scythia
  12. Seven Seas
  13. Seydlitz
  14. Shalom
  15. Sinaia
  16. Sobieski
  17. Spaarndam
  18. Srbija
  19. Star of Suez
  20. Statendam (III)
  21. Statendam (IV)
  22. Stavangerfjord
  23. Stefan Batory
  24. Stockholm (I)
  25. Stockholm (IV)
  26. Stuttgart
  27. Suffren
  28. Sydney
  29. Sylvania


▓▓▓ "T" ▓▓▓

  1. Thuringia
  2. Transylvania
  3. Tuhobic
  4. Tuscania


▓▓▓ "U" ▓▓▓

  1. United States (Am)
  2. United States (Dqn)


▓▓▓ "V" ▓▓▓

  1. Veendam
  2. Victoria
  3. Viseveca
  4. Volendam
  5. Vulcania


▓▓▓ "W" ▓▓▓

  1. Washington
  2. Waterman (I)
  3. Waterman (II)
  4. Westerdam
  5. Westernland
  6. Westphalia
  7. Winifredian


▓▓▓ "Y" ▓▓▓

  1. Yorck


▓▓▓ "Z" ▓▓▓

  1. Zaandam
  2. Zeeland
  3. Zion
  4. Zuiderkruis
  5. Zvir


Ships Listed in Index under Two or More Names

Name Former Name
Albertic Ohio
Alesia Montreal
Arosa Kulm American Banker
Berlin (III) Gripsholm (I)
Calgaric Orca
Carmania (II) Saxonia (II)
Columbia Katoomba
Empress of Australia (II) De Grasse
Empress of Canada (I) Duchess of Richmond
Empress of France (II) Duchess of Bedford
Europa (II) Kungsholm (III)
Franconia (III) Ivernia (II)
General Von Steuben München (III)
Habana Alfonso XIII
Hansa Albert Ballin
Hanseatic (I) Empress of Scotland (II)
Hanseatic (II) Shalom
Homeland Drottningholm
Italia Kungsholm (II)
Jerusalem Argentina / Bergensfjord (I)
Karlsruhe (II) Bremen (III)
Kosciuszko Lituania
Liberte Europa (I)
Minnesota Zeeland
Moreas Columbia
New York Nea Hellas / Tuscania
Pulaski Estonia
Queen Frederica Atlantic
Queen Anna Maria Empress of Britain (III)
Ryndam Waterman (II) / Ryndam
Stefan Batory Maasdam (IV)
Westernland Regina


About the Author

Frederick Earl Emmons (December 19, 1907 - August 23, 1999) was an American architect. With A. Quincy Jones, he designed many residential properties, including tract houses developed by Joseph Eichler in the Pacific Palisades, Orange, Palo Alto, and San Rafael, and commercial buildings in Palm Springs, Pomona, Whittier, and Los Angeles.

They also designed the Charles E. Young Research Library on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) campus.

Frederick Emmons was an expert on ocean liners, having written several books, "Atlantic Liners 1925-70", published by Bonanza Books Division of Crown Publishers, Inc., by arrangement with Drake Publishers, Inc. in 1972, "Pacific Liners, 1927-72," David & Charles; First Edition (January 1, 1973) "The Atlantic Liners," Random House Value Publishing (May 23, 1984), and "American Passenger Ships: the Ocean Lines and Liners, 1873-1983," (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1985).

He retired to the City of Belvedere, CA, in the San Francisco Bay Area.


Library of Congress Catalog Listing

  • Personal name: Emmons, Frederick E., 1907-1999
  • Main title: The Atlantic liners, 1925-70.
  • Published/Created: New York, Drake Publishers [1972]
  • Description: 160 p. illus. 26 cm.
  • ISBN: 087749214X
  • LC Classification: HE566.O25 E45
  • LC Subjects: Ocean liners--Registers.
  • LCCN: 72182051
  • Dewey class no.: 387.2/43
  • Type of material: Book


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