Emigration to North America
White Star Line Memo Notifying Agents that Steerage is Filled to Capacity dated 13 April 1892. GGA Image ID # 1d99992e3a
To fully understand immigration, we must look at the causes and conditions that caused people to emigrate from their homelands to North America (Canada and the United States). Historical articles from the latter half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries help provide insight into our immigration issues.
The Government Medical Inspector's Office at Liverpool. The Illustrated London News, 6 July 1850. GGA Image ID # 1d99e7b86c
We now proceed to detail the emigration process, beginning with the arrival of the emigrants at Liverpool, the great port of intercourse with the United States. In the annexed illustrations, our Artists have portrayed the principal incidents that occur in port—from the arrival of family to their final departure from the Mersey.
The total number of passengers "under the act" who have taken their departure from the Mersey during the twelve months just elapsed have numbered (inclusive of cabin passengers) 68,035, against 70,486 in 1858, being a decrease of 2,441.
A provisional order of 6 April 1867, and a corresponding law of 22 May 1869, stipulated, among other things, that those who recruited and transported emigrants should draw up a written contract with each individual.
My view is that comparing the two countries (Canada and the United States), there is a better and quicker return for the same amount of capital or labor in the States than is possible in most cases in Canada.
The Women's Emigration Society aims to enable women of all classes to obtain remunerative employment in the colonies and afford them the means of emigrating.
Suppose emigration offers channels through which women may not only obtain possession of such things as make life worth living but also significantly improve the status of those who remain in the old country. In that case, it opens a double door to prosperity.
Cholera did not obtain a hold among us at the time, nor afterward, but we can all very well recollect how general the fear of it; ever since then, the business of transporting this class of travel has been allowed to continue only under the strictest oversight by the health authorities in this country and abroad.
The Holland-America Line, a steamship company with passenger and freight steamers plying between Rotterdam and New York, is the only steamship line carrying emigrants from the Netherlands to the United States of America.
Upon arrival in Hamburg, emigrants of the A class are confined to the said Hamburg America Line's own emigrants' barracks on the Veddel, a suburb of Hamburg. These barracks are supervised by the Hamburg police department, having a resident police inspector. They are divided into two sections, "dirty" and "Clean." Upon leaving the train, they are placed in the "dirty" section until they have passed an examination by the official emigrants' surgeon of the Hamburg State government. This surgeon makes his examination every morning, and every emigrant is carefully examined while undressed.
Dr. Allan McLaughlin, of the Bureau of Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, of the Treasury Department has contributed to The Popular Science Monthly several articles on 'Immigration,' which have been of much interest to readers and have been highly commended by experts. We are pleased to state that Dr. McLaughlin has consented to continue this series of articles, covering the whole problem of immigration systematically.
The law merely proposes solving a problem forced explicitly upon the Italian Government, i. e., the issue of ensuring the most efficient protection for the emigrant against all possible wrongs and abuses.
As the stately Cunard steamer Ivernia, one bright morning in early March, made her way slowly up the harbor toward the famous old Charlestown dockyards at Boston. The most indifferent observer could not have failed to note a remarkable transformation in her appearance.
The study of race migrations has gone far enough to bring out the dominant fact that economic causes are at the heart of these movements. Adventure has played its part, and war (with plunder for its aim) a still more significant part, but plunder was the economics of the barbarian, while the lode-star guiding the world's most romantic adventure was the glitter of precious metals. It is even a little chilling to learn how the most gallant of these explorers did not forget that they were out for "the dust of the gods."
Emigration, as will be readily understood, is most closely connected with the economic state of European countries and the countries to which the emigrants are going.
The History of Emigration from the German Ports of Hamburg and Bremen discusses how the two major steamship companies competed for the immigrant trade.