Ocean Records Handbook for Travelers - May 1923

With this Edition, OCEAN RECORDS enters the third year of its career of usefulness to the traveling public. Not only among readers of WORLD TRAVELER, hut among travelers generally, the little handbook has made acquaintances and friends, until the latter are actually numbered by hundreds of thousands.

 

Front Cover, Ocean Records: A Pocket Handbook for Travelers, Fifth Edition, May 1923.

Front Cover, Ocean Records: A Pocket Handbook for Travelers, Fifth Edition, May 1923, Published by World Traveler Magazine, New York City. GGA Image ID # 1e6801eed4

 

Aboard Ship

Saloon and deck seats-If the traveler has preferences as to where he would like to sit in the dining saloon, he should make his first visIt on the steamer to the second steward, who has charge of the dining-room arrangements. Next, one should seek the deck-steward, who wIll assIgn a place on deck for one's steamer chaIr, of which he will take charge during the voyage. Travelers who have the time will find it better to visit the ship the day before departure and arrange at that time for both the dining-room seat and the deck chair posItion.

Regular meals.—Regularity in meal hours is one essentIal to good health on shipboard. Meals are served at fixed times, and one should never vary more than ten minutes in beginning each of the three meals every day.

The Purser.—The ship's purser is apt to be a very busy man all during the voyage. He and his assistants have a vast amount of clerical work to do between ports and have little time for sociability, mappIng out tours, or reciting the history or anecdotes of foreIgn countries. The purser, of course, wIll give information that Is necessary, or direct the passenger to where this may be obtained, and among his duties are to take charge of valuables for safe keeping, and, on ships where there is no bank, to change money.

Bath.—It is necessary, unless the traveler has a room equIpped with a prIvate bath, to fix a regular hour each day for the use of the bathroom. While most modern ships are amply supplIed with bathing facilities, the latter are not sufficient to permit everyone to take a bath at the same time or to monopolIze a bathroom for a long period. Twenty minutes Is the time allowed each passenger, and if one would secure a convenient hour for the morning tub, it is necessary to make early arrangements with the bathroom steward.

Pets.—Dogs, cats, birds and other pets will be taken care of during the voyage by a steward regularly delegated to that task. A charge is made for the transportation of' such, even the smallest.

At a Port of Call.—If the traveler does not remaIn on the ship until her final destination, but is leavIng at a port of call, he should notify his room steward In advance. The steward will in turn instruct the baggage master to have the traveler's "hold2 baggage ready for transfer to the tender or to the pier, as the case may be.

For Women.—The woman who travels wIll find indispensable a small handbag, large enough to hold a pad of writing paper, glasses, a book, and the few little things she may wish to have with her on shipboard or while traveling by motor or railroad on the continent. Its partIcular use on shipboard is to prevent small artIcles from being mislaid or blown away when the passenger 1: quits her deck chair for the moment.

 

Advertisement (1923), United States Lines / United States Shipping Board.

Advertisement (1923), United States Lines / United States Shipping Board. Ships Mentioned Include the SS Leviathan (The Largest Ship in the World), SS George Washington, SS President Roosevelt, SS President Harding. Ocean Records, May 1923. GGA Image ID # 1e67be81f5

 

American Customs Regulations

The United States customs laws require examination of the effects of passenger s arriving in America from foreign countries, except diplomatic officials and others specIally provided for by the Treasury Department, which, in such cases, permIts a "free entry" of the effects of such official passengers. Before an examinatIon of baggage can be made the passenger must have filled out and signed a blank furnIshed by the Treasury Department, and which will be presented by the ship's purser at the beginning of the westward voyage on transatlantic liners, in which all artIcles obtained abroad must be listed.

When a passenger has prepared and signed the declaration he or she must detach and retain the coupon at the bottom of the form, returning the latter to the ship's purser. The coupon must be presented by the passenger, upon arrival, to the customs officer on the pier whose duty it Is to receive such coupons. ThIs delIvery of the coupon must be made only after all the baggage belongIng to the passenger is deposited In one group on the pier and when It is ready for examination.

The senior member of the family, if a passenger, may make the declaration for the entire family.

DeclaratIons spoiled In the preparation should not be destroyed, but should be returned in their entirety to the purser, who will give the passenger a fresh form to fill out.

Residents of the United States must declare all wearing apparel, jewelry, and other articles, whether used or unused, on theIr persons, in their clothIng, or in their baggage, which have been obtaIned abroad by purchase or otherwise, with the foreign cost or value of the same. They must also declare all wearing apparel, jewelry or other articles taken out of the United States which have been remodeled or improved while abroad so as to Increase their value, the statement to include the cost of such improvement.

By stating the value of all declared articles, in UnIted States money, and by packing the same so that these may be easily produced for examinatIon (and in one trunk, If practicable), passengers will expedite the appraisement and passing of the same upon the pIer. Whenever practicable, passengers should present the origInal receipted bills for foreign purchases.

Residents of the United States are allowed $100 worth of articles in the nature of personal effects at their present foreIgn value, free of duty, provided they are not intended for other persons, or for sale, or to be used in busIness, and are properly declared.

Use does not exempt from duty wearing apparel or other articles obtained abroad, but such articles will be appraIsed at their market value abroad at the time of exportation to the United States.

Residents of the UnIted States may also bring with them free of duty all wearing apparel and other personal effects taken by them out of the UnIted States if such have not been remodeled or improved abroad so as to increase their value.

Residents of the United States must not deduct the $100 exemption from the value of their wearing apparel or other articles obtained abroad by purchase or otherwIse. Such deduction will be made by customs officers on the pier.

Foreign residents and all persons coming to this country to live will be allowed to bring in their household effects free of duty if the same have been actually used by them abroad for at least one year, and are not intended for sale or for any other person. Such effects should be declared. Articles Intended for other persons, for use in business, theatrical apparel, propertIes and sceneries, must also be declared, whether the passenger is a resident or non-resident of the United States.

All cigars and cigarettes must be declared, and they are not included in the $100 exemption. But every passenger, over the age of eighteen, Is entitled to bring in, free of duty and internal revenue tax, fifty (50) cigars or three hundred (300) cigarettes for his or her bona fide individual personal consumption.

Government officers are forbidden by law to accept anything but currency In payment of duties, but, If requested, will retain baggage on the piers for twenty-four hours to enable the owner to secure the currency.

Passengers are advised that to offer or give gratuIties or bribes to customs officers Is a violatIon of law, and customs officers who accept gratuities or bribes will be dismissed from the servIce, and all parties guilty of such offense are liable to criminal prosecution.

Baggage Intended for delIvery at ports of the UnIted States other than the port of arrIval, or baggage in transit through the United States to a foreIgn country, may be forwarded thereto without assessment of duty at the port of arrival, by the varIous railroads or express companies. Application for such forwarding should be made at once to the customs offIcer in charge on the pIer before the baggage Is examined, and the value thereof should be stated In the passenger's declaration.

Passengers, whether residents of the UnIted States or not, cannot bring into the country any sealskin garments made from the skins of seals taken in the open water of the North Pacific Ocean, these being prohibited importations under the Act of August 24, 1912.

Sealskin garments worn by or contaIned in the baggage of persons arriving in the UnIted States will not, however, be presumed to have been taken in prohibIted waters and will be admitted if the Collector is satisfied that the same were taken from the UnIted States, or are being brought in for temporary use, or were purchased abroad from reputable merchants whose names and addresses shall be given and shown in the baggage declaration in order that the origin of the skins may be traced if advisable.

American residents returning from abroad will not be inconvenienced by omitting to register their belongings, as all wearIng apparel, personal and household effects taken by them out of the UnIted States will be admitted free of duty on return In the absence of fraud or other suspIcIous cIrcumstances.

The traveler should be patIent with and courteous to the customs officers on the pier. They have difficult duties and strive to perform these duties as pleasantly and with as little discomfort to the passengers as possible.

 

Advertisement: From America to Europe in Comfort and Luxury by the French Line, Compagnie Générale TGransatlantique, 1923.

Advertisement: From America to Europe in Comfort and Luxury by the French Line, Compagnie Générale TGransatlantique, 1923. Six Days to England by Giant Express Steamers SS Paris, SS France, and SS Lafayette. Other Steamships Mentioned Include the SS Roussillon, SS Chicago, SS La Savoie, SS Suffren, SS Rochambeau, SS La Bourdonnais, SS De la Salle, and the SS Niagara. Ocean Records, May 1923. GGA Image ID # 1e6863cc5f

 

American Immigration Law

ImmigratIon Laws of the United States relatIve to admissIon of aliens are briefly summarized as follows:

With certain exceptions all alIens intending to come to the United States are required to obtaIn passports from the Government to which they owe allegiance and have the same viséed by the nearest American consul. (This provision does not apply to citizens of Canada, Newfoundland, Bermuda, the Bahama Islands, St. Pierre and Miquelon, or to BritIsh subjects domiciled in the first four and French subjects domIciled in the last two countries.) WIthout such viséed passports they can not be admitted into this country.

An alien resident of the United States who departs there from is required to undergo, upon his return, the same examination given to new arrivals, even though he may have taken out his first papers, and is requIred to pay the head tax. PermIssIon from the Bureau of Immigration to go abroad Is not necessary, but the prospective traveler should obtain a certificate from the collector of Internal revenue of the district in whIch he resides showIng that hIs income tax has been paId. WIthout such document he cannot secure passage on a vessel outward bound.

The Immigration laws do not apply to bona fide American citIzens, their wives, or minor children (unless the latter were born abroad prior to the naturalization of their father), who are admitted upon satisfactory evIdence of citizenship being furnished at the time of their arrival. A person who has not yet obtaIned final citizenship papers, though he may have declared his Intention of becoming a citizen, Is still an alIen.

An amendment to the immigration law, restricting the number of aliens who may be admItted into the United States in any one year to 3 per cent, of the number of any nationality resIdent therein as determined by the census of 1910, does not adversely affect the admissibility of the following classes of alIens:

  • (a) Government officials, their families, attendants, servants, and employees;
  • (b) Aliens In continuous transit through the United States;
  • (c) AlIens lawfully admitted to the United States who later go in transit from one part of the UnIted States to another through foreign contiguous territory;
  • (d) Aliens visiting the United States as tourists or temporarily for business or pleasure;
  • (e) Aliens from countries, immigration from which is regulated in accordance with treaties or agreements relating solely to immigration;
  • (f) Aliens from the so-called AsiatIc barred zone, as described in section 3 of the Immigration Act;
  • (g) Aliens who have resided continuously for at least one year immediately preceding the tIme of theIr admission to the United States In the Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, the Republic of Cuba, the Republic of MexIco, countries of Central or South America, or adjacent islands;
  • (h) Aliens under the age of 18 who are children of cItizens of the UnIted States;
  • (i) Aliens returning from a temporary visit abroad (a "temporary vIsit abroad2 shall be construed to mean an absence of not to exceed six months' duratIon wIthout relInquishment of domicile In this country);
  • (j) Aliens who are professional actors, artists, lecturers, sIngers, nurses, ministers of any religIous denomination, professors for colleges or seminarIes, aliens belongIng to any recognized learned profession, or aliens employed as domestIc servants (domestic servants, for the purposes of this act, are those only who have actually been employed, eIther In the United States or any foreign country, In the household of the person or persons accompanying them or to whom destined in the United States, comIng for the purpose of continuing such employment.

Atlantic Steamship List

Following is a simple directory of steamship lines and their various services from New York and nearby ports, to different parts of the world. An attempt has been made to give a complete list of the ports touched by these lines and to classify the latter according to the parts of the world to which they proceed.

First is given the name of the line, next its New York office and its pier, when one is in regular use, and then a list of the ports reached by the steamers of the service named. When more than one service is maintained, these are distinguished by the letters (a), (b), (c), etc.

Northern Europe

AMERICAN.-42 Broadway; Pier 62, NR.; Cobh (Queenstown), Plymouth, Cherbourg, Hamburg.

BALTIC-AMERICA.-9 Broadway; Pier 5, South Brooklyn; Hamburg, Danzig, Libau.

CUNARD-ANCHOR.—Cunard, Building, 25 Broadway; Piers 53-56 NR.; at Cherbourg, Southampton; (b) Cobh (Queenstown), Liverpool; (c) Plymouth, Cherbourg, Hamburg; (d) Londonderry, Glasgow; (e) Londonderry, Liverpool, Glasgow; (f) from Boston: Cobh (Queenstown), Liverpool; (g) from Boston: Londonderry, Glasgow.

FRENCH.-19 State St.; Pier 57, NR.; (a) Plymouth, Havre; (b) Havre; (c) Vigo, Bordeaux.

HAMBURG-AMERICAN.-39 Broadway; (a) Cherbourg, Southampton, Hamburg; (b) Hamburg, direct. Joint service with United American Lines; United American Lines General Agents in U. S.

HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE.-24 State St.; Pier 3 foot 5th St., Hoboken; Plymouth, Boulogne, Rotterdam. Calls at Southampton, westbound, instead of Plymouth.

NORTH GERMAN LLOYD.-14 and 16 Pearl St.; Hoboken, foot of 6th St.; Bremen.

NORWEGIAN AMERICA.-22 Whitehall St.; Pier, Foot of 30th St., Brooklyn; Bergen, Stavangeri Christiansand, Christiania.

RED STAR.-1 Broadway; Pier 61, NR.; (a) Plymouth, Cherbourg, Antwerp; (b) Hamburg, Libau, Danzig.

ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET CO.-26 Broadway, Pier 42 NR.; Cherbourg, Southampton, Hamburg.

SCANDINAVIAN-AMERICAN.--27 Whitehall St.; Pier, Ft. 17th St., Hoboken; Christiansand, Christiania, Copenhagen.

SWEDISH-AMERICAN.-24 State St.; Pier 97, NR.; Gothenburg, Malmö, Stockholm, Christiania, Copenhagen, Helsingfors.

UNITED AMERICAN.-39 Broadway; Pier 86, NR.; (a) Plymouth, Cherbourg, Hamburg; (b) Hamburg, direct. Joint service with Hamburg America Line.

UNITED STATES LINES.-45 Broadway; Piers 1-2-4, Hoboken, N. J.; (a) Plymouth, Cherbourg, Bremen; (b) Queenstown, Plymouth, Cherbourg, London; (c) Plymouth, Cherbourg, London; (d) Queenstown, Bremen; (e) Queenstown, Bremen, Danzig.

WHITE STAR.-1 Broadway; Piers 59-60, NR.; (a) Cherbourg, Southampton; (b) Queenstown, Liverpool; (c) Philadelphia or Boston: Queenstown, Liverpool.

Northern Europe—St. Lawrence Route

CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIPS, LTD.—N. Y. Offices, Canadian Pacific Building, Madison Ave. & 44th St. From Quebec: (a) Cherbourg, Southampton, Hamburg, Liverpool. From Montreal and Quebec: (a) Liverpool; (b) Cherbourg, Southampton, Antwerp; (c) Belfast, Glasgow.

CUNARD-ANCHOR.—(See above); (a) Montreal to Liverpool; (b) Montreal to Plymouth, Cherbourg, London; (c) Montreal to Glasgow; (d) Halifax to Liverpool. WHITE STAR DOMINION.—(See above); (a) Montreal, Quebec, Liverpool; (b) Montreal, Cherbourg, Bremen.

Southern Europe

COMPANIA TRASATLANTICA.—Pier 8, ER.; Regular services, Barcelona, Cadiz; for Vigo, Coruña, Gijon, Santander, Bilbao, occasional sailings.

COMPANIA. TRASMEDITERRANEA.— 82 Beaver Street; Cadiz, Barcelona, Cartagena, Valencia, Alicante, Malaga, Tarragona.

COSULICH LINE.—(Phelps Bros. & Co. Genl Agents) 17 Battery Pl.; Pier 7, Bush Terminal, B'klyn; Naples, Patras.

CUNARD-ANCHOR.—(See above): St. Michaels, Lisbon, Gibraltar, Naples, Patras, Dubrovnik, Trieste.

FABRE.-17 State St.; Pier, Ft. 31st St., Brooklyn; Azores, Lisbon, Palermo, Naples, Marseilles, Monaco, Piraeus, Beirut.

GREEK.-20 Pearl St.; Piraeus.

ITALIAN TRANSATLANTIC.-5 State St.; Pier 25, NR.; Naples, Genoa.

LLOYD SADAUDO.-3 State St.; Pier 95, NR.; Naples, Genoa.

NAVIGAZIONE GENERALE ITALIANA.-1 State St.; Pier 97, N.H.; Azores, Palermo, Naples, Genoa.

WHITE STAR.—(See above); Azores, Gibraltar, Naples, Genoa.

South America (East Coast)

BOOTH.-17 Battery Place; Pier, 33d St., South Brooklyn; (a) Para, Pernambuco, Maranhao, Ceara, Tutoia, Cabadello, Natal, Maceió, Manáos; (b) Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Paranaguá, Rio Grande do Sul.

LAMPORT HOLT.-42 Broadway; Pier, Ft. 15th St., Hoboken; Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires.

LLOYD BRAZILEIRO.-20 Pearl St.; Pier 5, Bush Terminals; Para, Ceara, Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Santos.

MUNSON.-67 Wall St.; Pier 1, Hoboken; Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires; alternate steamers southbound and all steamers northbound stop at Santos; all northbound steamers stop at St. Thomas, V. I.

NORTON, LILLY.-26 Beaver St.; Barbados, Montevideo, Buenos Aires.

South America (West Coast)

SOUTH AMERICAN STEAMSHIP CO. (COMPANIA SUD AMERICANA DE VAPORES).-25 Broad St.; Cristobal, Paita, Callao, Mollendo, Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta, Valparaiso; coast service from Cristobal fortnightly to all intermediate ports.

GRACE.-10 Hanover Sq.; Pier 33, Atlantic Docks, Bklyn.; Cristobal, Balboa, Salaverry, Callao, Mollendo, Arica, IquIque, Antofagasta, Coquimbo, Valparaiso.

PACIFIC LINE.-26 Broadway; Pier 42, N.R.; (a) Havana, Cristobal, Callao, Mollendo, Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta, Valparaiso; (b) Puerto Colombia, Cartagena, Cristobal, Buenaventura, Esmeraldas, Bahia, Manta, Guayaquil and Central American ports.

Bermuda

FURNESS-BERMUDA..-34 Whitehall St., Pier 95, N.R.; Hamilton.

ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET CO.—(See above); Hamilton and British West Indies.

West Indies, Caribbean Ports & Mexico

CARIBBEAN.-8 Bridge St., Pier 2, Bklyn.; Kingston, Puerto Colombia, Cartagena, Curaçao, Puerto Cabello, Colon.

CLYDE.-25 Broadway; Pier 34, Atlantic Basin, Bklyn.; Turks Island, Monte Cristi, Puerta Plata, Sanchez, Samaria, Macoris, La Romana, Santo Domingo City, Azua, Barahofia.

COMPANIA TRASATLANTICA.—(See above); Vera Cruz.

N. Y. & PORTO RICO.-25 Broadway; Pier 35, Atlantic Basin, Bklyn.; San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez.

PANAMA R. R.-24 State St.; Pier 67, NR.—(a) Colon, Port au Prince; (b) Colon and all Haytian ports; (c) Colon, Esmeraldas, Bahia, Manta, Porto Bolivar, Guayaquil.

QUEBEC.-34 Whitehall St.; Ft. W. 10th St.; St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. Kitts, Montserrat, Antigua, Guadaloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, Barbados.

RED "D."-82 Wall St.; Pier 11, Bklyn.; (a) San Juan, Curaçao, La Guayra, Puerto Cabello and Marcaibo, via Curaçao; (b) Mayaguez, La Guayra, Curaçao, Maracaibo.

UNITED FRUIT.-17 Battery Pl. and 281 5th Ave.; Piers 9, N.R.; and 16, E.R.; (a) Havana, Cristobal, Port Limon; (b) Kingston, Cristobal, Cartagena, Puerto Colombia, Santa Marta; (c) Santiago, Kingston, Belize, Puerto Barrios, Puerto Cortez, Puerto Castillo, Tela.

WARD.--Pier 13, Foot of Wall St.; Nassau, Havana, Progreso, Vera Cruz, Tampico.

Bahamas

MUNSON.—(See above); Pier 9, East River; Nassau. WARD.—(See above); Nassau.

West Indies, Caribbean Ports, Mexico and American Pacific Coast Ports

PACIFIC MAIL.-10 Hanover Square; Pier 33, Atlantic Terminal, Bklyn.; Cristobal, Balboa, La Libertad, Acajutla, San José de Guatemala, Manzanillo, Los Angeles, San Francisco. Stops at Havana eastbound only.

Cuba

COMPANIA TRASATLANTICA.—(See above); Havana. MUNSON.—(See above); Pier 9, E.R.; Nuevitas and Antilla.

PACIFIC LINE.—(See above); Havana.

PACIFIC MAIL.—(See above); Havana.

UNITED FRUIT.—(See above); Havana, Santiago. WARD.—(See above); Havana.

NOTICE:—Havana is also in the itinerary of White Star, Royal Mail and Canadian Pacific Cruises to the Caribbean.

Africa and India

AMERICAN & INDIAN.-26 Beaver St.; Pier 2, Bush Terminals; Port Said, Karachi, Bombay, Colombo, Madras, Rangoon, Calcutta.

AMERICAN & AFRICAN.—Norton, Lilly & Co., (see above); Cape Town, Durban.

 

Advertisement: Cunard Anchor Lines, Power, Stability, Comfort, Luxury in 1923.

Advertisement: Cunard Anchor Lines, Power, Stability, Comfort, Luxury in 1923 -- The New 20,000 Ton Cunarders Scythia, Laconia, Samaria, Franconia, and the Anchor Liners Cameronia and Tuscania. These Steamers--Running in Conjuction with the Renowned Caronia and Carmania--Offer Travel Opportunites Unexcelled in the History of Shipping. The World's Fastest Passenger Service, Weekly to Cherbourg and Southampton by the Aquitania, Mauretania, and Berengaria. Ocean Records, May 1923. GGA Image ID # 1e687406f0

 

The Barometer and Thermometer

The Barometer

Next to the mariner's compass and chart, the barometer is the most important aid to navigation ever invented. Many persons know that a barometer is an instrument for recording changes in the weather, and the student of physics is taught that this is done by measuring the weight or pressure of the atmosphere.

A rising barometer denotes the approach of good weather; a falling barometer, the reverse. A sudden fall warns the mariner to be on the lookout for a severe storm. The barometer was invented during the Seventeenth Century by Torricelli.

The ship's barometer, which is kept in the chart room, is very different from the original device. It traces a barometric chart, recording the atmospheric pressure throughout the voyage.

Reading the Thermometer

Except in England, the Fahrenheit scale is seldom used in Europe in reading the thermometer. On the continent the Centigrade and the Réaumur are followed in various countries.

To convert Centigrade into Fahrenheit, subtract ten degrees from the given temperature, subtract from the remainder one-tenth of itself, double the last remainder, and add fifty degrees to the product.

To change Réaumur into Fahrenheit multiply by nine, divide by four, and add 32.

 

The following scale will show the main equivalents:
Réaumur Fahrenheit Centigrade
32
104
40
19
76
34
10
55
13
0
32
0
-4
23
-5
-14
0
-18

Cab and Taxicab Fares in European Cities

London: The latest taxicab regulations, as supplied OCEAN RECORDS by Scotland Yard, are as follows:

The authorized taxicab fare is one shilling for the first mile, with increments of threepence for each succeeding quarter of a mile, as recorded on the taximeter in advance.

Ninepence for the whole journey is charged for each additional person carried beyond two; threepence for each piece of luggage carried on the outside; ninepence for each bicycle, child's mail cart or perambulator. Two children under ten years are reckoned as one person.

Many taxicabs are fitted with a taximeter recording at the above rate, but a large number showing eightpence per mile and two-penny increments are still carried. With the latter type the driver is authorized to receive an additional charge of 50 per cent. upon the amount recorded.

In case of dispute, an appeal should be made to the first Police Constable seen. In cases where there is cause for complain t the passenger should obtain the number of the Police number plate and of the identification mark, which are affrxed at the back of the cab, together with number of the driver's badge, if possible, and write to the Commissioner of Police, New Scotland Yard, Public Carriage Department.

It is, however, proper to add that the London taxicab driver is almost rnvariably civil and obliging. Frequently he owns the cab he drives. As a tip he is apt to expect as much as the New York taxicab driver gets, if not more. When there was such a thing as an eightpenny fare, he might have been satisfied with the remaining fourpence in the shilling. For a short journey he now expects, at least, from an American, sixpence, and a sixpenny tip should be good for any up to a two-shilling ride.

Paris: The taxicab fare begins at 75 centimes or one franc (according to the class of the cab) for the first 400 meters (about 1,312 feet), with twenty centimes for each additional 200 meters. An ordinary trip of fifteen minutes' duration costs about two francs, fifty centimes.

The extra charges are as follows: For going outside the fortifications of Paris, or for taking a passenger from outside to come into Paris, the surcharge is one franc, fifty centimes. During the hours between 11 P. M. and 6 A. M. there is a surcharge of one franc. Baggage carried outside is charged at one franc per piece. In case of an overcharge, one should take the number of the cab, have a witness if possible, and make a complaint at the nearest police office. If a policeman is available, one should appeal to him.

A Paris cocher or taxi-chauffeur expects a tip of not less than 25 centimes for a very short distance. For a fare of more than 1 franc, 25 centimes, he is apt to expect more in proportion.

Cities: The fares for motor taxicabs in Genoa, which vary little from those of other Italian cities, as marked by the taximeter, are now multiplied by three, the resulting fares being:

  • For the first 600 meters, or the first 12 minutes Lire 3.00
  • For every succeeding 200 meters, or 4 minutes Lire 0.60
  • For each piece of baggage which cannot be placed inside the cab Lire 0.25 (Day and night fares for motor taxicabs are the same.)

For horse cabs in Genoa the fares as marked by the taximeter are now multiplied by two, the resulting fares being:

Day Fares:

  • For the first 1,200 meters Lire 2.40
  • For every succeeding 200 meters Lire 0.4f

Night Fares:

  1. For the first 900 meters Lire 2.40
  2. For every succeeding 150 meters Lire 0.40
  3. For, each piece of baggage which cannot be placed outside the cab, 80 centesimi.
  4. For certain streets which run for a long distance uphill extra charge is made as follows:
    1. For one or two persons 80 centesimi
    2. For three persons Lire 1.60
    3. For four persons or more Lire 2.40

Regulations: For motor taxicabs the regulations are:

The chauffeur cannot refuse service within the limits of Nervi, Prato, Pontedecimo and Voltri. Returns empty for service outside the octroi limits of Genoa must be paid for at the late of the above tariff for motor taxicabs, but only for the distance between the place where the passenger descends and the nearest octroi limit. It is strictly forbidden for the chauffeur to demand, even as a tip, a sum exceeding that indicated In the above tariff. The chauffeur must lower the flag on the taximeter as soon as the service begins and raise it as soon as it is ended. When the flag is raised the chauffeur can never refuse service to any one. No cab can be in service when the taximeter is out of order. The taximeter must be illuminated at night. It is forbidden to take into the cab:

  • (a) Baggage or objects which can in any way damage the cab:
  • (b) Persons improperly dressed:
  • (c) Persons extraneous to the service.

Functionaries charged with controlling the taximeter may sit beside the chauffeur. The chauffeur must take the shortest route to his destination. The chauffeur is forbidden to leave the cab. Outside the Commune, in case of damage to the cab, the tires, the taximeter, etc., the chauffeur must at once stop the service, and when the damage cannot be quickly repaired can demand the amount marked by the taximeter.

Ordinary Cabs: For ordinary cabs the regulations are:

The taximeter shows two tariffs, one for day and one for night. Night service begins at 9 p. m. in summer and 7 p. m. in winter (from the 1st of October to the 31st of March) and ceases when the street lamps are extinguished. The driver can never refuse service when the flag is raised and must always take the shortest route to his destination. Services beyond the communal limits are optional; if accepted they are governed by the present tariff. The passenger must only pay the amount marked by the taximeter at the moment of stopping, plus those supplements which must be marked by the driver on the taximeter. The driver is strictly forbidden to demand anything extra, even as a tip.

Recourse: In case of dispute the passenger, provided the sum is not too exorbitant, should pay the fare demanded and report the driver's number to the Prefettura of Police. In other-cases a reasonable adjustment is obtained by calling the nearest Guardia Regia.

Tips: Fees to cab drivers are absolutely optional, and nothing beyond the payment of the fares as noted above is due, either for motor car or cab hire. The custom, however, is to give a tip of 10 or 15 per cent. of the bill.

Rotterdam: By day; first 300 meters, one or more persons, 50 Dutch cents, or half a florin; for every succeeding 150 meters, 10 cents. Night fares: for first 150 meters, 50 cents; each additional 75 meters, 10 cents. Baggage, if put on top or next to driver, 10 cents per piece. Waiting upon request, 10 cents for every three minutes.

For horse-cabs with taximeters, the day fares are 60 Dutch cents for one to five persons up to 1200 meters, with 10 cents for every additional 600 meters. The night fares are the same for half the distances-60 cents covering only the first 600 meters, and the 10 cents every additional 300. Baggage charges are the same as on motor taxis, but the charge for waiting is 10 cents for every four minutes. Horse-cabs without taximeters charge by time. The day fares are, 75 Dutch cents for the first 15 minutes, Fl. 1.20 for 30 minutes, Fl. 1.60 for 60 minutes, and for every succeeding 10 minutes after the first hour, 25 cents. The night fare begins with 1 florin for the first 10 minutes; for the first 20 minutes Fl. 1.50; every succeeding 10 minutes after the first 20 is 50 cents.

Baggage charges are the same as for horse-cab taximeters.

Copenhagen: For the first 700 meters, 1.20 crowns, and for each 350 meters, 10 öre. These prices are subject to change at any time, but may always be determined by the government and may be verified from the taximeter on the cab.

Stockholm: The taxicab rate is 50 öre for the first kilometer and 10 öre for every additional 300 meters, plus an increase of 50 per cent. Extra charge is made for carrying baggage.

Christiania: Taxicab rates are, by day, for one or two persons, 90 öre for the first 400 meters, and 15 öre for every additional 200 meters; for three or four persons, 90 öre for the first 300 meters, and 15 öre for every additional 150 meters. By night, for from one to four persons, the fare is the same as by day for three or four. There are no hourly rates. When a taxicab is called a charge is made from the place called to the destination.

Helsingfors (Finland): The usual mode of conveyance is by droshkies. The regular charge for a trip to any part of the city, without stop, being 6.50 Finnish marks.

Prague: The rates for carriages and taxicabs vary, but according to official information do not exceed $1.50 per hour.

Belgrade (Serbia): There is no taxicab service. For horse-drawn cabs the rate is 40 dinars per hour. The dinar, the normal value of which is 19.3 cents, is now worth little more than one cent.

Sofia (Bulgaria): There are no taxicabs in Sofia. The ordinary public vehicle is a phaeton. Between points within the city the fare is, officially, 25 leva, but strangers are almost always required to pay more. Automobiles may be hired by the trip. A leva is ordinarily of the value of a franc, but is now less than a cent.

Athens: The city is laid out in zones, and prices range from 3 drachmas to 15 for the ride. Return drives after ten minutes' stop cost half the price of the original trip. Each chauffeur or driver carries a copy of the regulations, which he must show upon demand, but as this is in modern Greek, it is wise to learn in advance of a ride just what it is going to cost. The supply of motor cars exceeds the demand. The drachma, ordinarily of the value of a franc, was less than a nickel when this was written.

Barcelona: Taxicab fares vary according to the horsepower of the cars and according to the two zones in which the city is divided. The average rate is about 16 American cents for the first 500 meters, with 2 cents additional for each 100 meters thereafter. When taxicabs are taken to points outside of the city proper, a return charge is made amounting to about half the fare recorded on the meter. Horse cab fares are about 45 cents per hour by day, and 60 cents per hour by night.

Warsaw: Fluctuations in Polish exchange, according to consular information, make it impossible to translate into dollars and cents a schedule of cab fares in Warsaw.

Reval. (Estlionia): There are no taxicabs, though automobiles may be hired. However, the rates for horse-drawn cabs, though fixed by the municipality, are not generally adhered to by the drivers, and bargaining is usually necessary.

Riga (Latvia): Cab fare is 50 Lettish roubles for one or two persons for a drive within the city limits.

Danzig: The rate charged for taxicab service at present is 15 marks per kilometer for distance traveled, and 40 marks per hour of waiting time. However, the legal rates are rarely adhered to and the chauffeurs are apt to exact three or four times the regular fare. The horse cabs or "droshkies" are somewhat cheaper than taxicabs, but they have no fixed tariff, and the drivers charge as much as they can get.

 

Advertisement: International Mercantile Marine Company, the Parent Company of White Star Line, Red Star Line, American Line, Atlantic Transport Line, Leyland Line, White Star Dominion Line, and Panama Pacific Line.

Advertisement: International Mercantile Marine Company, the Parent Company of White Star Line, Red Star Line, American Line, Atlantic Transport Line, Leyland Line, White Star Dominion Line, and Panama Pacific Line. They have a Combined Fleet of 117 Steamers, Led by the Majestic, the World's Largest Ship, the Olympic, the Homeric, the New Belgenland, and Other Famous Vessels, in addition to 14 Cabin Liners with Moderate Rates. De Luxe Service, New York to Cherbourg, and Southampton by the Magnificent Trio, Majestic, Olympic, Homeric. Service to Cobh, . And Liverpool by the Big Four, Adriatic, Baltic, Celtic and Cedric. Service to the Continent by Continental Type Ships, Including the Belgenland and Lapland. Economical Service by Comfort Cabin Ships to Principal Ports. Ocean Records, May 1923. GGA Image ID # 1e68936f94

 

Cables Rates for Steamship Passengers

Most cable (Wireless) rates have been recently reduced. The traveler may save money either by using a well known cable code or, if his message does not require immediate delivery, by marking it "deferred," In which case, from most countries, the tariff is one-half the regular rate. Messages sent to New York for delivery in other cities are charged, in addition to the cable rate, the usual telegraphic rate. The rates to New York follow:

  • Albania $0.32
  • Algeria $0.29
  • Argentina $0.50
  • Australia $0.66
  • Austria $0.30
  • Belgium $0.23
  • Brazil $0.50
  • Bulgaria $0.39
  • Chile $0.50
  • China 1.00
  • Crete $0.35
  • Cuba $0.15
  • Cypress $0.42
  • Czechoslovakia $0.31
  • Danzig $0.35
  • Denmark $0.35
  • France $0.22,
  • Germany $0.25
  • Gibraltar $0.36
  • Great Britain and Ireland $0.20
  • Greece $0.35
  • Holland $0.25
  • Hungary $0.33
  • Iceland $0.28
  • Italy $0.20
  • Japan 1.08
  • Jugoslavia $0.31
  • Lithuania $0.33
  • Luxemburg $0.27
  • Malta $0.32
  • Monaco $0.22
  • Norway $0.35
  • Palestine $0.44
  • Poland $0.32
  • Portugal $0.35
  • Rumania $0.33
  • Sarre Basin $0.27
  • Spain $0.33
  • Sweden $0.38
  • Switzerland $0.27
  • Syria $0.48
  • Turkey in Asia $0.43
  • Turkey in Europe $0.33

Clouds - Twelve Classifications

To the mariner and to the ocean traveler as well, clouds mean much and naturally they furnish a frequent topic of conversation during the average sea voyage. The old physical geographies divided clouds into four kinds, but the Weather Bureau of the U. S. Department of Agriculture make no fewer than twelve classifications. These are as follows:

  1. Cirrus: Isolated feathery clouds of fine, fibrous texture, generally white, frequently arranged in bands, spreading over a part of the sky. The cirrus is often closely connected with depressions of the barometer and upon its appearance weather observers base many of their forecasts.
  2. Cirro-stratus: A fine, whitish veil giving a milky appearance to the sky, though sometimes exhibiting tangled fibres. The veil often produces halos around the sun and moon.
  3. Cirro-cumulus: Fleecy, small white balls and wisps with very faint shadows or without, arranged in groups or rows.
  4. Alto-cumulus: Large whitish or grayish balls with shaded portions, grouped in flocks or rows, frequently with the edges meeting. Often arranged in lines in one or two directions.
  5. Alto-stratus: A thick veil, gray or bluish, exhibiting a brighter portion in the vicinity of the sun or moon.
  6. Strato-cumulus: Large rolls or balls of dark clouds, frequently covering the whole sky in winter. Often the blue sky appears in breaks through it. This is not classed as a rain cloud.
  7. Nimbus: Dense, dark masses with ragged edges, from which generally a continuous rain or snow is falling. if the mass is torn into small patches, 'or if low fragments float much below a great nimbus, sailors call such a cloud a "scud."
  8. Cumulus: In appearance great masses of snow white wool, with dome-like summits and flat bases.
  9. Cumuto-nimbus: This is the thunder or shower cloud; heavy masses, rising like towers or mountains, usually surrounded at the top by a screen of fibrous texture and by nimbus-like banks at the base. From the last usually falls rain, or snow, hail or sleet.
  10. Stratus: Layers, uniform in shape and appearance, resembling a fog, but not resting on the ground.
  11. Fracto-stratus: Stratus is so called when it is broken into irregular shreds by the wind or by summits of mountains.
  12. Fracto-cumulus: Cumulus broken up by strong winds, when the detached portions undergo continual changes.

European Railways

Travel conditions in western Europe have assumed normal conditions, and, except in Russia and the new republics and other recently created sovereignties, it is possible to go about by rail with much the same speed and comfort as before the war.

One who is in possession of his faculties should not he able to make a mistake in the train he or she expects to take, for its name and its destination are called out several times and the name appears on large sign boards, the name of each station is properly marked, and anyone who is on the alert has no excuse for being carried past his destination.

Except in the case of excursions, such as week-end and bank holiday trips from London, the traveler in Europe who intends to make a number of stops, gains little by buying through tickets. Local tickets from point to point in the end will amount to hardly more than the entire through rate between the two furthest points. In France and some other countries it is now possible to purchase circular tickets, including one's whole itinerary, and thus effect a considerable saving.

Train Time in Europe

Trains in Europe are usually run on Greenwich time, with a variation of one hour faster for middle Europe and two hours for eastern Europe. In the Greenwich zone are France, Belgium, Portugal and Spain. Holland has its own time, 20 minutes ahead of that of Greenwich. It should be remembered that many European countries, however, for ordinary purposes, employ their own local time, based on the longitude of the international observatories.

Railway time tables on the continent of Europe are now figured on the 24-hour system; that is to say, the day, instead of being divided into two periods of 12 hours each, runs from midnight straight away through the 24 hours to midnight again, the hours being numbered from one to twenty-four. On these time tables the abbreviations "A. IM." and "P. M." are abolished; any hour under 12 means A. M., and from 12 to 24 means P. M. A train arriving or departing at a quarter past one in the afternoon is shown as 13:15; if shown as arriving or departing at 20:18, that means that its time of arrival or departure is eighteen minutes past eight in the evening. The figures 24:0 indicate a train arriving at midnight; a departure at midnight is indicated by 0:0. Arrivals and departures between midnight and 1 A. M. are indicated by 0:1 to 0:59.

Baggage Allowance on European Railways

In England the baggage allowance on trains, in addition to what may be carried in the compartment, is: First class, 150 pounds; second class, 120 pounds; third class, 100 pounds.

On most continental railways, free allowance on a first class ticket is only 66 pounds. The travelers who take many trunks, about on the continent must expect to pay heavily for "excess baggage."

On Italian railways travelers are permitted to take with them into the compartment a reasonable amount of hand luggage; a ticket indicating a foreign destination carries with it a baggage allowance of 40 kilos over and above that which is taken into the compartment.

 

Flags and Funnels of Steamship Lines - 1923

 

Flags and Funnels of Steamship Lines. National Flags and Signal Flags of the International Codes. Ocean Records, May 1923.

Flags and Funnels of Steamship Lines. National Flags and Signal Flags of the International Codes. Ocean Records, May 1923. GGA Image ID # 1e689968a7. Click to View Larger Image.

 

Above are flags and funnels markings for the major Transatlantic and Trans-Pacific steamship lines as of 1923. Includes the Cunard, White Star, United States Lines, United American Line, Pacific Mail Steamship Co., Admiral Line, American Line, Leyland Line, French Line, Matson Navigation Company, Munson SS Line, Swedish American Line, Dominion Line, Anchor Line, Holland America Line, Scandinavian American Line, Baltic American Line, Norwegian America Line, Allan Line, Royal Mail Steam Packet Line, Toyo Kisen, Phelps Lines, Cosulich Line, Canadian Pacific Ocean Services, Nippon Yusen, Lloyd Italiana, Lloyd Sabaudo, Transoceanica Line, Italia Line, Canadian Austrailasia Royal Mail Line, United Fruit Company, Lamport Hold Line, La Veloce Line, Hamburg America Line, Union SS Co. of New Zealand, North German Lloyd, and Fabre Line.

Heads of European Countries

Austria
Dr. Michael Hainisch, Pres., National Assembly.
Belgium
Albert, King of the Belgians. His wife, Queen Elizabeth, was a Bavarian Duchess. They have three children, Prince Leopold (heir apparent), Prince Charles and Princess Marie José.
Bulgaria
Boris III, Czar.
Czecgoslovakia
Thomas G. Masaryk, President.
Denmark
ChristIan X. King. His Queen was Princess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg. They have two sons, Crown Prince Frederick and Prince Knud. The royal family of Denmark is related to almost every other royal family in Europe. The King's brother is the King of Norway, his cousin is the King of England, his nephew is the King of Greece, his mother was the daughter of the late King Charles XV. of Sweden, and he himself was a cousin of the late Czar of Russia.
Esthonia
Constantine Paets, State Head. Finland.—Prof. K. J. Stahlberg, President. Franee.—Alexandre Millerand, President. Germany.—Friederich Ebert, President.
Grcat Britain.
George V. King of the -United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the seas, and Emperor of India. Queen Mary was the Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, only daughter of the Duke of Teck. Their children are Edward Prince of Wales, Prince Albert, Princess Mary, Prince Henry and Prince George.
Greece
George II, King. He succeeded his father, Constantine I, In September, 1.922, upon Constantine's abdication.
Hungary
Admiral Nicholas von Horthy. Regent.
Italy
Victor Emanuel III, King. Queen Elena was the daughter of Nicholas, King of Montenegro. Their children are Princess Yolanda, Princess Mafalda, Prince Humbert (heir-apparent), Princess Giovanna, and Princess Maria.
Jugoslavia (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
Alexander, King.
Latvia
Jan Chakste, President. Stulginskis, Acting President.
Luxembourg
Charlotte, Grand Duchess. Monaco.—Louis, Prince.
Netherlands
Wilhelmina, Queen. Her consort is Prince Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Her daughter, Juliana Wilhelmina, Princess of Orange, was born in 1909.
Norway
Haakon VII, King, second son of the late King Frederick VIII of Denmark. He was elected to the crown by the Norwegian people. Queen Maude was the third daughter of the late King Edward VII of England. They have one son, Olav, Crown Prince.
Poland
Dr. Wojcziechowski, President.
Portugal
Dr. Antonio J. d'Almeida, President.
Rumania
Ferdinand, King. Queen Marie was the Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Their children are Crown Prince Carol, Princess Elizabeth, Princess Marie, Prince Nicholas and Princess Deana.
Russia
Soviet Cabinet, headed by Lenin and Trotsky.
Spain
Alfonso XIII, King. Queen Victoria Eugénie was the daughter of the late Prince Henry of Battenberg, and the granddaughter of the late Queen Victoria. They have four sons, Alfonso, Prince of the Austrians; Prince Jaime, Prince Juan, and Prince Gonzales, and two daughters, Princess Beatrice and Princess Marie Christina.
Sweden
Gustaf V, King. Queen Victoria was a Princess of Baden. They have three sons, Crown Prince Gustaf Adolph, Wilhelm and Eric.
Switzerland
Dr. Robert Haab, President.
Turkey
Mustapha Kemal, Pres. Nat. Assembly
Ukrainin
Ruled by Soviets.

London to Paris / Pullmans and Trains de Luxe

From London to Paris

There are four direct ways of journeying from London to Paris by train and boat. The shortest in point of distance is the route via Newhaven and Dieppe, 225 1/2 miles. In point of time the shortest route is via Folk-stone and Boulogne, which is 259 1/2 miles. The journey via Dover and Calais covers 2881/4 miles and that via Southampton and Havre, 3411/4 miles.

By way of Folkstone and Boulogne, the journey is scheduled to require 7 hours and 12 minutes; via Dover and Calais, 7 hours 25 minutes; via Newhaven and Dieppe, 8 hours 20 minutes; via Southampton and Havre, 15 hours and 37 minutes.

Travelers who are not good sea-voyagers and who dread a bad channel-crossing are frequently influenced to select the route which will give them the shortest time in the open sea. Via Calais the actual sea-passage is from one hour and ten minutes to one hour and a half; via Boulogne it is one hour and forty minutes; by way of Dieppe it is about three and one-half hours, and by Southampton it is a night's journey of about seven hours. These figures do not include the time consumed in getting in or out of a harbor.

Passengers from the continent to England may also travel via Cherbourg and Southampton in one of the large ocean steamships making calls at the French port. This method of crossing to England is becoming very popular.

Pullmans and Trains de Luxe

On some of the railways in Southern England there are "modified" pullman cars, as distinguished from the ordinary corridor and compartment cars. On many of these the compartment idea is still preserved and in a pullman it is possible to obtain a quiet breakfast without going to the diner. The pullman, however, is not in general use.

An elaborate system of trains de luxe cover the greater part of Europe—at least those portions touched by the heaviest travel. These trains de luxe consist of sleeping cars and dineri and are usually the fastest means of accomplishing continental railway journeys. Where through trains can be made by the passenger, the latter will find it a much more satisfactory method of journeying than by studying the time table for himself and trying to make his own connections. Even if he is much experienced in European travel, he will usually find it to his advantage to obtain his information about trains and connections from a well-known travel bureau.

Mariner's Compass 1923

The most important instrument in the navigation of a ship is the mariner's compass. It consists of a number of magnetic needles placed with their axes parallel; a framework supporting the needles, and a circular disc marked in points and degrees called a compass-card; a pivot on which the framework rests and a compass bowl, containing the compass. The compass bowl is mounted in a binnacle (usually a brass box) in such a way that the surface will swing level, and the binnacle is usually contained in a wooden binnacle box for protection. Below is a picture of the compass card.

 

Points of the Compass. Ocean Records, May 1923.

Points of the Compass. Ocean Records, May 1923. GGA Image ID # 1e68d8ef05

 

Points of the Compass

  • North.
  • North by East.
  • North Northeast.
  • Northeast by North.
  • North East.
  • Northeast by East.
  • East Northeast.
  • East by North.
  • East.
  • East by South.
  • East Southeast.
  • Southeast by East.
  • South East.
  • Southeast by South
  • South Southeast
  • South by East.
  • South.
  • South by West.
  • South Southwest.
  • Southwest by South.
  • South West.
  • Southwest by West.
  • West Southwest.
  • West by South.
  • West.
  • West by North.
  • West Northwest.
  • Northwest by West.
  • North West.
  • Northwest by North.
  • North Northwest.
  • North by West.

Nautical Terms

Abaft:
Toward the stern; further aft than.
Aft:
At, toward, or near the stern.
Alleyway:
Passageway.
Altitude:
Angular elevation of the Pole above the horizon.
Ballast:
Any weight or weights used to keep the ship . from becoming top-heavy.
Beam:
Greatest width of a vessel.
Bilge:
The flat, or nearly flat, part of a ship's bottom.
Bilge Keels:
Fin-like strips running lengthwise and projecting from the outer bilge on some ships to prevent rolling.
Bilge-water:
Foul water that collects in the bilge of a ship.
Bitts:
Heavy steel castings fitted to a deck for securing mooring lines or hawsers.
BOOM:
A long, round, heavy spar, pivoted at one end, generally used for hoisting cargo, etc. On sailing vessels the spar holding the bottom of a fore-and-aft sal.
Bow:
The forward part of a vessel.
Bridge:
The observation platform or partial deck built across and above a ship's deck for the use of officers in directing the course.
Bulkhcad:
A vertical partition running from side to side, of fore-and-aft beneath the deck. A collision bulkhead is the first partition forward, near the bow.
Bunker:
A compartment used for storage of fuel.
Cable:
The chain to which the anchor is fastened. The term "cable's length," means about 100 fathoms or 600 feet, one-tenth of a sea mile.
Capstan:
A windlass for winding the cable.
Chart:
A sea map used in navigation, showing depth of the sea, location of rocks, configuration of coast, etc.
Chart Room:
The Captain's office.
Coaming:
The vertical boundary of a hatch or skylight.
Companionway:
A staircase at the entrance of a ship's cabin.
Crow's Nest:
A barrel or box on the ship's foremast where the lookout is stationed.
Davits:
Heavy vertical pillars, of which the upper ends curve, used to support the ends of a boat when hoising or lowering.
Headlight:
Covering for portholes made of metal or wood and used in severe weather.
Dead Reckoning:
Method of ascertaining the approximate position of a vessel from the course steered and the distance run; used in times of heavy and protracted fog.
Dog:
A small, bent metal fitting, used to close doors, hatch covers, etc.
Draft or draught:
The depth to which a vessel sinks in the water; one commonly speaks of a ship's "drawing2 so many feet of water, which is the equivalent of her draft.
Drift Current:
Movement of the surface of the sea.
Ebb Tide:
The falling tide.
Equinox:
Equal length of day and night, the vernal equinox occurring toward the end of March and the autumnal toward the end, of September.
Fathom:
Six feet.
Flood Tide:
Rising tide.
Fo'c's'le: "Forecastle";
seamen's quarters in the bow.
Fore-and-aft:
Lengthwise with the ship.
Forward:
Toward the bow.
Galley:
The ship's kitchen.
Glory Hole:
Steward's quarters. Usually aft, over the propellers.
Hatch:
An opening in a deck.
Hawse Pipes:
Openings in the how for the anchor chain.
Hawser:
A large rope, commonly used for making fast to a pier or tender.
Hold:
The part of a ship below decks reserved for the storage of freight or baggage.
House Flag:
The pennant usually flown by a ship, bearing the emblem of her owners.
Hurricane Deck:
A deck with no overhead protection.
Keel:
The central longitudinal beam at the extreme under-side of the vessel; the foundation of the entire construction.
Knot:
A nautical mile. The British Admiralty knot is 6,080 feet; the statute knot is 6,082.66 feet, or 1.151 land miles.
Larboard:
The left side of a ship. Now obsolete and superseded by the word "port."
Lcad:
A mass of lead used for sounding at sea.
Lee or Leeward:
The side of the vessel away from the wind.
Log:
(a) An instrument towed by the vessel at the end of a long line, recording distance traveled. (b) Official daily record of a voyage, including weather, wind, direction and velocity, distance traveled, etc.
Mid-ship:
Toward the middle or "waist" of a vessel, is equally distant from bow and stern. The term "amidships" is frequently used.
Mooring:
Securing a ship in position by lines so she cannot move or swing; anchoring.
Overhang:
Portion of hull, over and unsupported by the water.
Pilot:
Usually the licensed "guide" who comes aboard ship from a near port and directs her course through the local channel to anchorage or pier, or from the pier to the outer end of the channel.
Pilot House:
Sheltered position connected with the bridge from which the ship is steered.
Pitching:
See-saw motion caused by the plunging of the vesselis head into the sea and the consequent raising of the stern. Distinguished from rolling, which is a movement from side to side.
Poop:
Raised deck toward the stern of the vessel. Port: The left side of a vessel. French, babord.
Porthole:
Stateroom window.
Rudder:
The hinged projection astern for steering, controlled by chains from under the bridge.
Sailing Vessels, varieties:
(a) A full-rigged ship has usually three masts, on all of which are square sails. (b) A bark has three masts, all square-rigged except the third or mizzenmast, which is fore-and-aft rigged. (c) A barkantine has three masts, the foremost square-rigged, the other two fore-and-aft rigged. (d) A brig has two masts, both square-rigged. (e) A brigantine has two masts, square-rigged except for a fore-and-aft mainsail. (f) A schooner has two or more masts, with fore-and-aft sails. (g) A sloop has a single mast, fore-and-aft rigged. Scending: Heaving upward; a mixing of rolling and pitching.
Serew:
The ship's propeller.
Scuppers;
Drains from the edge of a deck, discharging overboard.
Sextant:
An instrument for measuring angular distance, used in ascertaining the ship's position by taking the sun's altitude at noon.
shaft:
Long, round, heavy forging, connecting engine and propeller.
Soundings:
Means of measuring the depth of the water by dropping a lead line from beneath the bridge.
Spar:
A round timber for extending a sail; a mast, a yard or a boom.
Spring Tide:
High tide caused by the sun and moon being on Meridian together, or in opposition.
Starboard;
The right side of a ship. French, tribord.
Stem:
A nearly upright timber or metal piece constituting the forward member of a vessel's hull; the bow.
Stern:
The rear end of a vessel.
Taffrail:
A rail around a vessel's stern; the upper part of a vessel's stern.
Tender:
As applied to ocean travel, a small steamer for meeting ships in ports and taking off or putting on passengers.
Thwartship:
Crosswise to the ship.
Weatherside, Windward:
Side of vessel toward the wind. Winch: A small hoisting engine.
Yards:
Spars set crosswise of a mast and used to support square-sails.

Pacific Steamship Services

For the convenience of prospective travelers, we have prepared the following list of Pacific steamship services from the west coast of the United States and Canada, with the New York offices of those that maintain such.

Trans-Pacific

ADMIRAL ORIENTAL LINE.—Sailings every 12 days from Seattle and Victoria for Yokohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Manila. N. Y. Office, 17 State St.

CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIPS, LTD.—Frequent departures from Vancouver and Victoria for Yokohama, Kobe, Moji, Nagasaki. Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila. N. Y. Office, 344 Madison Ave.

OSAKA SHOSEN KAISHA.—Departures every fortnight from Seattle and Tacoma for Yokohama, Kobe, Moji, Dairen, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Manila. One class cabin only. N. Y. Office, 25 Broadway.

PACIFIC MAIL'S TRANS-PACIFIC.-Departures every two weeks from San Francisco for Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Shankhai, Hong Kong and Manila. N. Y. Office, 10 Hanover Square.

LOS ANGELES SS COMPANY.-Departures every two weeks from Los Angeles port for Honolulu.

MATSON NAVIGATION COMPANY.-Departures once a week from San Francisco for Honolulu. Departures from Seattle for Honolulu every thirty-five days.

NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA.-Departures every two weeks from Seattle for Yokohama, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Manila and the intermediate ports of Japan. N. Y. Office, 10 Bridge St.

TOYO KISEN KAISHA (Oriental S. S. Co.).-Departures approximately every two weeks from San Francisco, via Honolulu, for Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki, Dairen, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila and Formosa. Tickets interchangeable with Pacific Mail and Canadian Pacific Ocean Services. N. Y. Office, 165 Broadway.

South Sea Islands, New Zealand & Australia

CANADIAN-AUSTRALASIAN ROYAL MAIL.-Departures monthly from Vancouver for Honolulu, South Sea Islands, New Zealand and Australia.

OCEANIC (SPRECKELS').-Departures monthly for Honolulu, Pago Pago (Samoa) and Sydney (Australia). N. Y. Office, 17 Battery Pl.

UNION S. S. CO. OF NEW ZEALAND.-Departures every twenty-eight days from San Francisco for Papeete, (Tahiti), Rarotonga (Cook Islands) Wellington (New Zealand) and Sydney (Australia).

Passports

Passport regulations are quite likely to remain in force for some time to come in most foreign countries, although for Americans passports are not required for entry into or leaving their own country. For going to most foreign countries, however, they are still absolutely necessary, and an American traveler is unwise who neglects to provide himself with one. Even though it may be possible to get into a foreign country without such a credential, getting out may prove difficult.

Method of Obtaining.—In obtaining a passport, arrangements should be made well in advance. If one lives in or near New York, time may be saved by application at the Passport Bureau of the State Department in the New York Custom House. If near Washington, the passport may be obtained at the Passport Bureau of the State Department.

If one lives some distance from Washington or New York, one may apply through the Clerk of a Federal or State Court, who will supply application blanks, assist in filling them out and take the necessary affidavit. The application to Washington must be accompanied by two small photographs of the applicant, size 2x3 inches, and it is necessary for the prospective traveler to state the names of the countries he proposes to visit, his business therein, his occupation, and a few details about himself for identification purposes.

Countries Not Requiring Passports.—It is understood that passports are not required of American citizens for travel in the following countries: Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Jamaica—when one is a tourist or winter visitor—Mexico, Newfoundland, Paraguay and Uruguay. No visa is required for Salvador.

Visas.—Before leaving the American port for a foreign country, it is necessary to have the passport viséed by the consul of that country, and if one plans to visit several countries, it is best to obtain visas before sailing from the consul of each country requiring such a formality. Such visas usually are good for three months only and after that must be renewed.

In cases where one's program is uncertain it is advisable to obtain visas as required. Travelers who expect to do considerable journeying about should take at least a dozen photographs to Europe. Such are often required of those seeking visas, permits to reside, and other official documents. Photographs should show the head and shoulders, and women as well as men should wear no hat in the photograph.

Costs of Visas.—Most foreign countries, retaliating for the American charge of $10 for viséing foreign passports, have imposed an equal tax for a visa on American passports. Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Czechoslovakia now charge $10 for a consular visa, and even Monaco makes the same charge. Jugoslavia charges $10.50. France charges $5, but a French visa is good also for Corsica, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Syria and other French colonies and protectorates.

A British visa is good for Egypt, Gibraltar, and Palestine, and is valid for one year. The American visitor to Holland requires no visa on his passport, provided his stay is limited to four weeks. For a longer visit, a visa is necessary, and costs $1.50. The charge for a Japanese visa is $2.50.

Sailing Permit.—It is no longer necessary for an American to have a sailing permit. An alien must, however, obtain such from the Collector of Internal Revenue, and it is issued only when the requirements of the Income Tax Law have been complied with.

Passport Formalities Here and in Europe

France.—Before the traveler leaves New York, the passport must be viséed at Pier 57, foot of West 15th Street, New York. The passport is inspected on steamer before the passenger disembarks at the French port. It serves as proper identification for a period of two months following the traveler's arrival in France. After that the visitor desiring to remain in France must have a carte d'identité.

To secure this the visitor first of all obtains a certificate of domicile from the proprietor of the hotel or boarding house in which he is staying, or from the concierge of the house, if he is occupying a leased apartment. He must take this certificate to the Commissariat of Police in the district in which he is residing. There it is stamped and legalized. The visitor then takes this certificate, together with five photographs and his passport, to the Bureau des Etrangers at the Préfecture of Police, in Paris, or to the Mairie, if in the provinces.

There is a brief questioning of the applicant, who pays a small fee, leaves his certificate of domicile and photographs and obtains In exchange a "receipt for a request for a carte d'identité." This serves as proper identification pending the issuance of the carte d'identité itself, which should be called for at the Préfecture or Malrie within two weeks. The passport is again inspected before the traveler boards the steamer.

It is not now necessary for American travelers from Paris to London to obtain visas at the Préfecture of Police in Paris. All that is required is an American passport, viséed by the British consul in Paris. When returning from London to Paris, the visa of the French consul is not required.

Tourist tax.—All tourists, whether French or foreigners, staying less than four weeks in a summer or winter resort, are subjected to a small tax of from ten centimes to two francs per day, according to the importance of the resort, the class of the hotel, etc. This tax is collected by the hotel, and is placed on the bill.

England.—The traveler bound for England must have his passport viséed at the British Consulate-General in New York, the passport office being at 20 Pearl St., or by the British Consular Officer in whose district he resides. This is inspected upon his arrival at a British port and, if the traveler conducts himself properly, no further passport formalities are required during his stay in England. except that his passport may be inspected at his port of departure from that country.

Italy.—An American citizen entering Italy direct from the United States or from a European country, must be in possession of a valid American passport, duly viséed by an Italian Consular representative abroad. The aforesaid visa, if one is proceeding directly from the United States, must be secured in the United States; if the traveler is not proceeding directly from the United States to Italy, the visa may be secured in the country from which he intends to proceed to Italy.

Spain.—The traveler to Spain may obtain a visa from the Spanish Consulate-General in New York, either in person by sending his passport by mail. The passport is inspected upon arrival in Spain, but no further formalities are necessary, except that if the traveler prolongs his stay a permis de séjour must be obtained from the Civil Governor. Before leaving Spain the passport must be viséed, and it is again inspected at the Port of Departure. Under a reciprocal arrangement between Spain and the United States, a wife and children under fifteen years of age may be included on the same passport issued to the husband. All persons over fifteen years old are required to have separate passports.

Belgium and Switzerland.—No visa necessary.

Holland.—No visa necessary for Americans, provided the holder of a passport limits his stay in the Netherlands to four weeks; if longer, he must have obtained a visa and report to the police in Holland and obtain an "identity card.2 Americans passing through Holland en route to another country must have the passport visa of the country of destination, and will be allowed a transit period of not more than eight days.

Denmark.—An American desiring to remain in Denmark after the expiration of his visa must apply to the nearest State Police official for an extension before the visa expires.

Sweden.—When the validity of a passport visa expires, permission to remain in Sweden must be obtained from the Foreign Office. A traveler desiring to leave Sweden and return should obtain permission to return before leaving.

Bulgaria.—A visa is good for one year, provided the passport is valid during that period. A medical examination is made at seaports, but most visitors arrive at Sofia by way of the Paris-Constantinople trunk line.

Czechoslovakia.—A Czechoslovakian visa on an American passport is good for the first visit only; for subsequent visas during the same year charges are graduated at $8.00, $4.00 or $2.00 "according to applicant's economic situation." The Legation at Washington and the Czechoslovak Consulates in the United States are authorized to grant "permanent visas" (good for six months) for an unlimited number of entries and departures from Czechoslovakia. For transit through Czechoslovakia a visa is necessary.

Germany.—A German visa is usually issued for three months, but is valid for the length of time stated in the endorsement. This holds good in any German state except Bavaria, where it is necessary to obtain from the Police a special permit if one intends remaining longer than 24 hours. For extension of the validity of a visa application must be made to a Magistrate or to Police Authorities.

Danzig.—While passports and visas are not necessary for entering Danzig, a person entering the free city by land or sea should have his passport viséed by the Polish Consul in whose district he resides in the United States, as it is probable he must cross Polish territory; otherwise, permission to enter Polish territory may be refused until a telegram can be sent to the Polish consul in the United States in whose district the traveler resides, to ascertain if there is any reason why the traveler should not be permitted to enter Polish territory—and a reply received. Those who enter by land must also have the visa of a German consular officer in the United States.

Latvia.—Passports, properly viséed by a Latvian consul, must be presented by travelers within 24 hours after arrival in Riga. Travelers in transit through Latvia may obtain a transit visa, costing $2.00, to extend the stay indicated on the entrance visa, a sojourn permit, (fee $3.00 required). Excursion groups are exempt from Latvian entrance, exit and sojourn fees.

Three-Mile Limit, Auctions, Pools, Professional Gamblers

Three-Mile Limit

Until recently the jurisdiction of a country has been supposed to cover the adjacent sea for a distance of only three miles beyond its coast line.

Auction and Other Pools

Almost the first thing the steamship passenger begins to hear about is "the pool." On some ships there are swimming pools, but "the pool" usually means the total amount subscribed by a number of passengers who bet upon the ship's daily run. There is the hat pool, for instance, for which ten persons subscribe an equal sum, from one dollar to twenty-five dollars, placing the total in the hands of a smoke-room steward or one of their number. Each chooses a number of 0 to 9. At noon of each day, when the ship's position is taken, her run from noon of the day before is posted, and whoever has the number corresponding to the last figure in the run, wins the pool.

Auction pool is not so easy for everybody to understand, and the chances are that the layman who is not interested in gambling will find it difficult to comprehend if he has to depend entirely on the information usually obtainable. But here is the explanation:

Twenty men are selected, usually by a group of themselves, who, it is supposed, can be depended upon to "stay in the game" until the end of the voyage. These subscribe five dollars or a sovereign apiece to the pool, and each selects one of twenty numbers, based upon the run of the ship during the day ending the previous noon.

The numbers are put up on auction, and the owner of a number has the privilege of buying it in; if he fancies it, he may have to pay a good price for it. If it is sold to another, half of the selling-price goes to the original owner and half into the pool. After all the numbers have been auctioned, "high field" and "low field" are sold, high field and low field being respectively all numbers above the highest one sold and all numbers below the lowest one sold. If the weather is unusually fine, after a bad day's run, high field is apt to bring a big price.

If the weather is bad after a good day's run, low field is apt to be much sought. On a big, luxurious passenger steamship, it is not unusual for a single number to sell for as much as $150, and for high or low field to bring from $300 to $500. Occasionally the value of an auction pool may run to as much as $2,000 or $2,500.

Professional Gamblers

On many steamers notices are posted warning passengers against professional gamblers; yet, in spite of it, every once in a while there is evidence that all travelers do not heed this warning. The man of experience should be able to distinguish a professional gambler, if not upon sight, at least after a little observation of the other. The smoke-room, or the lounge, affords ample opportunity for all who wish to play cards on shipboard.

 

 

Ocean Travel Suggestions

To the intelligent man or woman the opportunity to travel, and particularly to journey in foreign lands, usually comes as one of the most enjoyable means of recreation. Not only do such esteem it as a means of enlarging knowledge and widening one's horizon, but the change of surroundings and of everything which goes to make up living is apt to give pleasure. Such a one sets forth on a journey with expectations of a good time, and usually endeavors to make the most of a trip.

Unfortunately, many persons do not thoroughly enjoy traveling, and the fault frequently lies in or with themselves. To get the most out of a journey into strange lands and among strange peoples a traveler should possess a sense of humor and a degree of philosophy. He must be willing to make the best of any situation that may arise. it is not absolutely necessary for an American who travels to know any other language than English and yet a slight acquaintance with the language of every country he visits is apt not only to add to his pleasure, but to save him a good deal of trouble.

If he is not a linguist it will pay him in the end to acquire a few words of the tongue of the country in which he travels. Good phrase-books are to be had, but few books of this character teach one how to pronounce foreign words as they are pronounced by natives.

The man who depends on a phrase-book would gain if before he entered a foreign country he could take a few lessons in pronunciation. And, if he really wishes to get the most out of his journey, he should by all means read up on the countries he proposes to visit. A brief outline knowledge of the history of the country that is to be visited will prove not only of interest but valuable in interpreting its people, their institutions and their life.

"When in Rome do as the Romans do" is an axiom which to a certain extent the traveler finds it desirable to follow. Not literally, of course; but one should bear in mind that in a foreign country the ways and customs may be vastly different from those to which one is used at home, and govern himself accordingly.

Politeness is a much more generally distributed characteristic in Europe and the Orient that it is in the United States. One should never show irritation over small details in the examination of baggage, for a momentary lapse of good nature may cause several hours of needless delay. Anyone who is able to draw upon an unfailing supply of good temper and tact runs little risk of real annoyance while traveling.

Booking.—The rush season to Europe begins early in May and continues until the latter part of July. One might say that it is never too early to book berths and the transatlantic traveler would find it wise to decide upon the date of his return before leaving home, and secure his return passage. The homeward rush begins early in August and is still in full swing late in September. Often it is very difficult to obtain passage westward during those months and one who has neglected to do so is apt to find his stay in Europe prolonged far beyond his original intentions.

Clothing.—For an ocean journey the traveler should remember that a single voyage may provide many varieties of weather, particularly in the spring or autumn, and while light clothing is necessary on warm days it is wise to guard against chills and one should not journey without woolen clothing. No man should travel without an overcoat, and a woman should have a heavy wrap. On most of the big steamers one finds a great deal of 2dressing for dinner" these days, and even on the smaller liners many prefer it, not prompted by a feeling of snobbishness, but because of a desire to make a break in the day's monotony. A well-dressed party at a dinner table is apt to be a merrier party. A man should always carry along a dinner suit. In London he may have need of a dress suit. Usually on the continent there is small need for the latter. The dinner-coat is considered de rigueur for evening in most continental capitals and watering places during the summer.

Baggage.—Intending voyagers should remember that when two or more persons share a stateroom each has certain rights which the other ought at least to respect. It is unwise to fill more than one's share of a stateroom with superfluous bags. On a transatlantic voyage a man should be able to get along with a steamer trunk, a suitcase, a laundry bag and various toilet conveniences.

A woman who does not intend to dress elaborately during such a voyage should be able to do with very little more. On all steamers it is possible at certain hours to gain access to the baggage room, where one or more extra trunks may be stored. In traveling by train in Europe it is possible, as many voyagers do, to carry most of one's effects in numerous articles of hand luggage. This is one way of insuring their arrival at destination coincidently with the passenger. Unfortunately, however, the practice is abused.

Each piece of baggage should be marked with the owner's name and destination in full and should be of a character that permits it to be readily opened for customs examination. In traveling about in Europe baggage is not generally checked, but "registered" from one place to another. It is strongly recommended that in registering baggage on the continent the owner should be careful not to leave any jewelry in it, and that he should insure his baggage. This can be done for a small sum.

Heavy luggage should reach the steamship pier the day before sailing. The steamship companies allow 20 cubic feet of baggage free. All above that quantity must be paid for, the excess being charged not by weight, but by measurement. On all European railways, the free baggage allowance is now very small.

The baggage that would be needed during the voyage should be distinguished from that which is "not wanted" by tags supplied by the baggage masters of the steamship companies, or which may be obtained at the steamship agencies. If a trunk is desired to be kept in the stateroom, it should be not more than 13 inches in height, else it will not go under the bed. In more expensive staterooms, however, wardrobe trunks may be accommodated. Travelers should inquire of the steamship company as to just what baggage space is allotted in the cabin purchased.

Storage of Luggage—Should a traveler desire to leave in storage at the port of debarkation trunks or other baggage, to remain until his return, the same will be taken care of at his risk by the steamship company. If one lands in England and has baggage which he may not need in that country but may require in Paris, such baggage may be forwarded "in bond" to the French capital, to be passed there by the French customs authorities and without examination in England. Arrangements for this may be made with the baggage master of the steamer.

Steamer Rugs.—It is unnecessary for anyone who does not wish to be encumbered with luggage to include a steamer rug in his travel equipment, as rugs for the ocean voyage to Europe may be hired on board ship. However, if one expects to do a good deal of traveling on European trains a rug is an excellent thing to take along, as cold temperatures are often encountered when least expected.

How Funds Should bc Carried.—While a traveler should be supplied with enough cash for immediate needs, it is inadvisable to journey with a large sum of money on one's person. The safest and most convenient method is to carry either a Letter of Credit or Traveler's Cheques.

Anyone who takes the bulk of his traveling funds in the form of a Letter of Credit would be wise to carry in addition a small sum in the form of Traveler's Cheques. These last are issued by certain banks, steamship and tourist companies for sums of $10, $20, $50 and upwards, and are readily accepted anywhere at the equivalent of their face value in local money, though it is better to have all of one's cashing done in banks, at least while exchange is subject to fluctuation.

A third method of carrying travel funds is by the use of drafts issued by banks in the United States upon banks in other countries, or vice versa. Such, however, are payable only by the bank upon which they are drawn and if deposited elsewhere may require delay for their collection.

Forwarding Mail.—If the traveler does not know at which hotels he will stop in Europe, he should arrange before sailing to have his letters and other mail sent to some central point in London or Paris, such as his bank, his tourist agency or the office of the steamship company whose service he patronizes. Arrangements may be made after arrival in Europe for mail to be forwarded to various destinations. In many of the large European cities a number of American daily newspapers have branch offices which receive mail and forward it as directed.

Hogs.—Cannot be landed in Great Britain unless a license has previously been procured from the Board of Agriculture in London. This is not any arbitrary regulation, but is consequent upon an outbreak of rabies in England many years ago which had disastrous results. Forms of licenses must be obtained by direct application before the dog may be taken aboard the steamer.

Porters on Piers.—While many guide books assert that it is not necessary to tip the porter on a pier, and in some European ports one sees notices posted to this effect, the traveler is apt to find that unless he does tip porters on piers he may experience delay, if not actual trouble, in the handling of his baggage. One should make sure that one's baggage has been put on the tender, on the pier, and on the train.

The American Consul.—Many persons travel for months at a time without seeing an American consul. Others, through accident or mischance, find themselves in difficulties, and the recourse of such a one is the consul of his country. If there is no consulate in the particular town where the American happens to be, it will be easy to find out where the nearest is located, and these days the average American consul is g type of man who welcomes a call from a fellow-countryman and is ready to give his services in time of perplexity or need.

Ocean Depths

The ocean—by which general term is meant the great bodies of water on the earth's surface—comprises 72 per cent, of the surface or, approximately, an area 142,000,000 square miles. The average depth of the ocean is two miles. Its greatest depth in the Pacific so far determined, is 32,088 feet, off the Island of Mindanao, in the Philippines. The deepest point of the Atlantic was formerly said to be near Porto Rico, where soundings discovered a depth of 27,366 feet, a little over five miles. However, more recent surveys have indicated that near the mouth of the Rio de la Plata the depth of the Atlantic is over eight miles.

Tonnage of Ships

The fact that there are at least three kinds of measurements of vessels by tonnage is apt to confuse the traveler who obtains his impression of the size of a vessel by the tonnage figure given him. Gross and net tonnage measurements are recognized by law. The gross tonnage of a vessel is its entire internal capacity measured in tons of 100 cubic feet. The net tonnage is measured by subtracting from the gross tonnage all space used for the accommodation of officers and crew, for certain gear in the working of a ship, and, if a steam vessel, for her propelling power of machinery, including boiler and engines. Displacement tonnage means the weight of the water displaced by a ship and her cargo floating in it.

Biggest Ships

Since the reconstruction of the Leviathan, the title held by the Majestic as the world's biggest ship has been challenged. So far as can be gathered the question involved is, what determines the size «of a vessel—length or tonnage; and if length, is it length from stem to stern—that is, the distance from the fore side of the stem to the after side of the stern post, as reckoned in Lloyd's Register of Shipping, or does length mean length over-all— from the tip of the bow to the tip of the overhang?

The Majestic's measurements as furnished by Lloyd's Register, are: length, 915.5 ft.; breadth, 100.1 ft.; registered gross tonnage, 56,551 tons; and those for the Leviathan are: length, 907.6 ft.; breadth, 100.3 ft.; registered gross tonnage, 54,282 tons. The White Star Line's figure for the Majestic's length over-all is 956 ft.

The length of the re-vamped Leviathan, as given by Chairman Lasker of the U. S. Shipping Board, is 950.7 ft.; breadth, 100 ft. 6 in.; with a gross tonnage of '59,956.65. In addition to different ways of measuring a ship's length, there are also, as is pointed out elsewhere in this volume, different ways of measuring tonnage.

In giving the measurements of the following big ships of 20,000 tons or over, we are using the figures furnished us through the courtesy of Lloyd's Register.

Biggest Ships, 1923. Ocean Records: A Pocket Handbook for Travelers (5th Ed.).

Biggest Ships, 1923. Ocean Records: A Pocket Handbook for Travelers (5th Ed.). GGA Image ID # 1e69040904

 

World's Ship Tonnage

According to Lloyd's Register, there are in the world 29,255 steamers and motor vessels of 100 tons and over, the total gross tonnage of these vessels being 61,342,952.

Of the steamers and motor vessels, Great Britain and her possessions own 10,263, of 21,615,009 tons and the United States and possessions 4,331, with a tonnage of 15,808,462.

Japan takes third place with 2,026 such vessels of 3,586,918 tons, and France follows with 1,723 vessels of 3,537,382 tons; though these last two positions are reversed if the tonnage of sailing vessels is also considered.

There are stated to be 4.680 sailing vessels in the world, the gross tonnage totaling 3.027,834.

Ocean Greyhounds That Cut Records

The first so-called "ocean greyhound'' brought out by the Cunard Line, was the Acadia, which made her maiden voyage some eighty years ago. A comparison of her size and speed with those steamships that have subsequently made "fast reputations" is interesting. The following is a list. It will be noted that no steamship has made a speed record since the Mauretania made hers in 1908 and 1909.

 

Ocean Greyhounds Speed Records through May 1923.

Ocean Greyhounds Speed Records through May 1923. GGA Image ID # 1e6909325b

 

Record Transatlantic Voyages

 

Record Transatlantic Voyages. Ocean Records, May 1923.

Record Transatlantic Voyages. Ocean Records, May 1923. GGA Image ID # 1e690bfef7

The record from New York to Havre was made by the France, of the French Line—5d. 17h. From N. Y. to Southampton the record, 5d. 17h. 8m., was made by the Kaiser Wm. der Grosse, of the North German Lloyd Line, in 1897, and that from N. Y. to Naples by the Deutschland, Hamburg-American Line, 7d. 16h. 44m., in 1904.

The record for the fastest day's run was made by the Mauretania, of the Cunard Line, in January, 1911—676 knots, or 27.04 knots per hour.

 

Earlier Transatlantic Records

 

Table of Earlier Transatlantic Records Showing How Passage Time Decreased Over Time. Ocean Records, May 1923.

Table of Earlier Transatlantic Records Showing How Passage Time Decreased Over Time. Ocean Records, May 1923. GGA Image ID # 1e69169875

 

Content Index

 

Index to Contents of Ocean Records, Fifth Edition, May 1923, Part 1 of 2 Covering Announcement to Icebergs.

Index to Contents of Ocean Records, Fifth Edition, May 1923, Part 1 of 2 Covering Announcement to Icebergs. GGA Image ID # 1e699979f4

 

Index to Contents of Ocean Records, Fifth Edition, May 1923, Part 2 of 2 Covering Immigration Law (American) to World Traveler.

Index to Contents of Ocean Records, Fifth Edition, May 1923, Part 2 of 2 Covering Immigration Law (American) to World Traveler. GGA Image ID # 1e69a7562f

 

Albert S. Crockett (Comp.). (1923). Ocean Records: A Pocket Handbook for Travelers (5th Ed.). New York: World Traveler Publishing Co.

 

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