SS Zeeland Prepaid Purchaser's Receipt - 11 December 1923
United States Lines Contract for Second Class Prepaid Passage Ticket No. 880615 for a 13-Year-Old Polish Girl, Executed on 11 December 1923. A Person Named Janina Kozlowski Made Several Trips between the United States and Poland, with Only One Voyage Close to December 1923. On 10 November 1923, a 13-Year-Old Polish Girl Named Janina Kozlowski Arrived in New York on the SS Zealand of the Red Star Line with the Rest of Her Family. This Prepaid Passage Contract Only Makes Sense if Executed during October 1923. GGA Image ID # 1fa0a7f168
Contract Terms and Conditions for Prepaid Ticket No. 880615, 11 December 1923. GGA Image ID # 1fa0c126de
Summary of Prepaid Purchaser's Receipt
- Date of Purchase / Voyage: 11 December 1923 / 10 Nov 1923
- Steamship Line: United States Lines/Red Star Line
- Steamship: SS Zeeland
- Route: Antwerp to New York
- Ticket Type: Prepaid Purchaser's Receipt
- Voyage Class: Second Class
- Name on Contract: Janina Kozlowski
- Etnicity of Passenger(s): Polish
- Contract Terms: Transcribed
- Cost of Ticket: $164.56 / $2,500.00 USD in 2020
Prepaid Purchaser's Receipt Details
Janina Kozlowski was a 13 Year-Old Polish Immigrant girl traveling from Antwerp to New York on the SS Zeeland who arrived in New York on 10 November 1923. If you look under Terms of Contract, #16 prohibits children under 16 traveling alone.
UNITED STATES LINES 45 Broadway, New York
Second Class Prepaid No. 880615
- Names and Address of Passengers: Janina Kozlowski
- Street: ... Stanislaw Yablowski wies
- Post Office: Pratki am Skinifse Proasta
- Country: ipow Lifsni Xumia Plocka
- From ---- to Poland Europ. Rail
- From Danzig to New York by Express/Regular S.S.
- From New York to Reading American Rail
- County: Bucks
- State: PA
- European Railway Fare: None
- Ocean Fare: 2 Class 1 Full: $135.00
- American Railway Fare: 2 Class, 1 Full: $4.56
- Pay to Passenger at New York: Landing Money: $25.00
- Amount Received, Total: $164.56
Tobias Knoblauch, Banking, Passage & Exchange, 706 Franklin St., Reading, PA USA
Name and Address of Purchaser: John Kozlowski, RFD Mohnton, PA
at Reading PA
Date: 11 December 1923
Contract for Prepaid Ticket No. 880615
In consideration of the passage money indicated on the reverse side (back) of this contract, the United States Lines (hereinafter referred to as the Lines) agrees to transport the passenger named on reverse side of this ticket (hereinafter referred to as the passenger), but only upon the terms hereinafter provided, from port of embarkation to port of landing mentioned herein, and to provide, as agent of and at risk of passenger and/or purchaser of this ticket, for the transportation of said passenger from inland point in Europe to port of embarkation, and or from port of landing to point of destination as shown on reverse side (back) of this contract.
TERMS OF CONTRACT
1. The steamer by which the Lines may transport the passenger shall have liberty hereunder, in the discretion of the Lines or its representative, to proceed without pilots, to tow and assist vessels, in all situations, to put back, to move to, call, enter or stay at, any ports or places for any purpose although upon no route to destination or in a contrary direction to it or concerning a different voyage, once or oftener, backward or forward in any order or rotation, or to omit any itinerary ports, to deviate from the direct and customary course, and if prevented from sailing or proceeding in the ordinary course, shall have liberty (but is not required) to forward any passenger or property by continuing carriers to final destination by any available means, direct or via ports and places by the same or any other route or itinerary at the risk of such passenger and property. In case of any deviation, whether permitted hereunder or justifiable or not, any liability of the Lines in respect of passenger or property, or for loss, damage or delay or injury or death of or to the same shall, during such deviation, be governed by and subject to the conditions, exceptions, and limitations of this contract.
2. The Lines shall not be liable to the purchaser hereof or to any person carried under this contract for any failure to perform the contract, or any of the stipulations thereof, or for any injury or delay to or death of such passenger or loss or destruction of or damage or delay to his baggage arising or resulting from any act of God, public enemies, arrest or restraints of princes, rulers, peoples, perils of the sea or other waters or of navigation, fire, barratry of master or crew, theft, pilferage, or from any cause whatsoever beyond the Lines reasonable control, or from any other reason unless such other cause be shown due to negligence or wrongdoing chargeable to the Lines; and provided due diligence shall have been exercised to make the vessel in all respects seaworthy and properly manned, equipped and supplied, the Lines shall not be liable for loss, damage, injury, delay or death resulting from faults or errors in navigation or management of the vessel or latent or other defect in or unseaworthiness of the ship or any craft, whether existing at time of sailing or otherwise.
3. The Lines shall not be liable for loss, damage, or delay to passenger Or baggage or Injury or death of a passenger caused directly or indirectly by riots, strikes, lockouts, labor disputes, or labor disturbances of any kind or by the course of action adopted by the Lines or other persons whomsoever in contemplation or consequence thereof or connection in addition to that.
4. A passenger is not entitled to transportation of any property hereunder except personal effects properly constituting baggage. Laces, species, bullion, precious stones, banknotes, bonds, or other documents, negotiable and otherwise, gold and silver articles, jewelry, and valuables not constituting personal belongings for the use of the passenger, and merchandise, samples, and property of others and any property not personal effects of the passenger, do not constitute baggage and must be shipped under a bill of lading at the Lines tariff rates. The Lines shall not be responsible for any respect if not so sent. Except as from now on provided, a passenger is entitled to transportation of baggage hereunder (including property retained in stateroom or the personal custody of the passenger, or deposited with the purser, as well as baggage carried in hold or baggage room) to the extent only of 20 cubic feet and to total value of S100, if a first-class passenger, or a total value of $50, if a second class passenger, or to the extent only of 10 cubic feet and to a total value of $25, if a third class passenger (Children in proportion to the extent of full fare paid). It is agreed that such baggage does not exceed the said value, upon the basis of which the passage money has been adjusted. No higher value than said sum shall be placed on said baggage in computing any liability of the Lines, whether for negligence or otherwise unless before embarkation any excess over such value be declared in writing to the Lines' Baggage Master at the piér and extra payment made to him at the rate of 1%, on the excess so declared, and a receipt obtained for such amount stating the excess value so paid on, in which case said limitation of value should be deemed increased by the excess so paid on an additional charge will be made for excess measurement. Still, payment thereof shall not entitle the passenger to raise in valuation. The Lines does not undertake to transport baggage by any particular steamer or at any specific time and shall not be responsible for any delay in the transportation or delivery thereof.
5. Documents, manuscripts, money, watches, precious stones, jewelry, gold and silver articles and valuables of any sort, and such articles as are specified In Section 4281 of the U. S. Revised Statutes, if constituting personal effects such as may be carried appropriately hereunder as baggage, must be deposited with the purser of the steamer for safe keeping in a safe provided therefor. The Lines will not be responsible in any respect therefor until so deposited. Property and luggage retained by a passenger in stateroom or the passenger's personal custody and control must not be left unguarded about the ship or in stateroom, either before or after sailing, but when not in actual use, must be locked in the passenger's stateroom or trunk or receptacle of such character as not to be readily opened or removed, and failure to observe these requirements shall, in case of loss or damage during neglect thereof, be deemed negligence of the passenger. Property and luggage entrusted to a steward or other member of the ship's crow to take on board or ashore or hold for the passenger is at sole risk of the passenger, such persons not being authorized to represent the Lines for such purposes.
6. The passenger must see that baggage is distinctly labeled with the passenger's name, steamer, date of sailing, and destination. If the passenger fails to label his luggage, the Lines shall not be liable for loss of baggage or delay in delivery thereof.
7. The Lines may at any time without notice change any steamer, accommodations, or sailing, and no claim shall be made against the Lines because of any cancellation prevention, change, delay, or substitution of any steamer, sailing, or accommodation for hotel or board bills, traveling expenses or other loss, or expenses whatsoever.
8. Money received by the Lines regarding transportation, other than the transatlantic passage herein provided for, is received only as the passenger's agent to pay the same over to other carriers. The Lines shall not be responsible for such other transportation, nor be deemed to receive property into its custody until the arrival at its pier at the port of embarkation on said trans-Atlantic voyage, nor be responsible for passengers until embarkation upon its vessel at such port. Upon disembarkation or discharge at its wharf or over the vessel's side, its responsibility shall end without notice.
9. To comply with United States Immigration Laws. Passengers must, if required by the carrier, submit at the port of embarkation or elsewhere, as required, to a physical or other examination by the Lines' representatives. If the Lines decides that there is a possibility of the passenger being excluded from the United States, or the passenger refuses to submit to such examination, this ticket may be canceled as to such passenger. Children under 16 will only be taken if accompanied by an adult. No person who is, in the opinion of the Lines' representative, unfit to proceed because of sickness or infirmity or whose condition is such as to endanger the life, safety, or reasonable comfort of other passengers, no professional gambler, and. unless accompanied by an attendant, no person whose condition is such as to require an attendant, shall be entitled to transportation hereunder. The Lines shall not be liable for thus excluding a passenger, except that ocean fares received for such passenger shall be returned, less the expense that the Lines may be put to on his account and less commissions paid to agents. If a passenger is excluded or deported by the immigration authorities of the United States for any cause whatsoever, no claim shall be made against the Lines on that account.
10. Passengers accepting medical or surgical treatment or supplies from the ship's physician or otherwise do so at their own risk without the responsibility of the Lines and subject to the physician's charge.
11. In case of quarantine or other delay, each passenger must bear all risks and expenses thereby caused and shall pay to the Lines for maintenance, payable day by day while maintained on board the steamer, $2.00 per day if a first or second cabin passenger, and $1.00 per day if a third class passenger.
12. This contract is valid only for the passenger named and is binding for two years. During this time, the Lines agrees, upon application of the passenger (unless berths have been secured for him), to reserve accommodations for the sailing desired, or as soon after that as possible, with the understanding that if no accommodations corresponding with the price paid are available on the desired steamer, the passenger engaging vacant accommodations at a higher or lower rate will pay the difference in fare or be entitled to have the same refunded, as the case may be.
13. Passage money shall be deemed fully earned upon embarkation and shall not be refunded in whole or part, vessel, passengers, or property lost or not lost, voyage begun or not begun, except as hereinbefore provided.
14. The Lines shall have the right to cancel this Contract upon reasonable notice by telegram, cable, radio, or in writing maned to either the purchaser or the passenger at his address stated on the back hereof. If this contract is canceled, the Lines shall return the passage money paid to the purchaser, therefore, less the agent's commission and other expenses incurred.
15. No agent of the Lines is authorized to alter or change the terms or conditions of this contract in any manner whatsoever.
16. In the extension of limitation of liability on the part of the Lines, this Contract is subject to the provisions of sections 4281-4287, each inclusive of the United States Revised Statutes, wherever provision is made in this contract for limitation of liability of the Lines such limitation of liability shall extend to and cover the Lines, the Ship Owners, their representatives, agents, and servants. Agent, Master, Passage Broker, their respective legal representatives, successors, and assigns, and all liability limitations in this contract shall extend to them and each of them. Wherever the word Passenger or Purchaser is used in connection with provisions for the end of liability on the part of the Lines, such terms shall be held to include the heirs, legal representatives, and assigns of the Passenger and Purchaser, respectively.
17. No suit shall be maintained in any jurisdiction for loss, damage, delay, injury, or death of any passenger or property unless such action shall be commenced within ninety (90) days from the date of embarkation and unless within five (5) days after termination of the voyage, notice of claim shall have been made to the Lines in writing stating fully the facts upon which such action is based.
18. Concerning any responsibility of the Lines arising before commitment as carrier begins or continuing after such responsibility ends, the Lines shall benefit from the same conditions, limitations, and exceptions as expressed in this contract.
Should the Purchaser object to any of the stipulations in this, the regular form of contract for prepaid tickets, the Lines will modify the same if and so far as practicable, provided the rate of passage is increased sufficiently to repay the Lines for the increased liability. But no particular contract modifying or adding to the terms hereof shall be binding on the Lines unless entered into for an additional consideration with a person having actual authority on its behalf to make the same, and unless the same be signed in duplicate by the parties and approved in writing by the New York office of the Lines.
UNITED STATES LINES
45 Broadway, New York
Signature of Purchaser Agent's Signature (Left Blank)
Agent's Signature (Left Blank)
- First Name: Janina
- Last Name: Kozlowski
- Ethnicity: Poland, Polish
- Last Place of Residence: Torun, Poland
- Date of Arrival: Nov 10, 1923
- Age at Arrival: 13
- Gender: Female
- Marital Status: Single
- Ship of Travel: Zeeland
- Port of Departure: Antwerp
- Manifest Line Number: 0006
Brief Information about the SS Zeeland
Built by John Brown & Company, Clydebank, Scotland, 1901. 11,905 gross tons; 580 (bp) feet long; 60 feet wide. Steam quadruple expansion engines, twin screw. Service speed 15 knots. 1,162 passengers (342 first class, 194 second class, 626 third class).Two funnels, four masts.
Built for Red Star Line, British flag, in 1901 and named Zeeland. Antwerp to New York also Dover Antwerp to New York service.
- Name: Janina Kozlowski
- Arrival Date: 10 Nov 1923
- Birth Date: abt 1910
- Birth Location: NY,USA
- Birth Location Other: Syracuse
- Age: 13
- Gender: Female
- Ethnicity/ Nationality: Polish
- Port of Departure: Antwerp, Belgium
- Port of Arrival: New York, New York
- Ship Name: Zeeland
- Source Citation: Year: 1932; Arrival: New York, New York; Microfilm Serial: T715; Microfilm Roll: 5211; Line: 26; Page Number: 77.
- Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820-1897; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M237, 675 rolls); Records of the U.S. Customs Service, Record Group 36; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
- Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1897-1957; (National Archives Microfilm Publication T715, 8892 rolls); Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
- Supplemental Manifests of Alien Passengers and Crew Members Who Arrived on Vessels at New York, New York, Who Were Inspected for Admission, and Related Index, compiled 1887 - 1952; (National Archives Microfilm Publication A3461, 21 rolls); RG 85, Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1787 - 2004; Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Relative Cost of Passage Ticket in Today's Currency Value
In 2020, the relative values of $164.56 from 1923 ranges from $1,970.00 to $39,900.00.
A simple Purchasing Power Calculator would say the relative value is $2,500.00. This answer is obtained by multiplying $164.56 by the percentage increase in the CPI from 1923 to 2020.
This may not be the best answer.
The best measure of the relative value over time depends on if you are interested in comparing the cost or value of a Commodity, Income or Wealth, or a Project.
If you want to compare the value of a $164.56 Commodity in 1923 there are four choices. In 2020 the relative:
- real price of that commodity is $2,500.00
- real value in consumption of that commodity is $5,550.00
- labor value of that commodity is $9,840.00 (using the unskilled wage) or $11,100.00 (using production worker compensation)
- income value of that commodity is $13,500.00
- economic share of that commodity is $39,900.00
If you want to compare the value of a $164.56 Income or Wealth, in 1923 there are five choices. In 2020 the relative:
- real wage or real wealth value of that income or wealth is $2,500.00
- household purchasing power value of that income or wealth is $5,550.00
- relative labor earnings of that commodity are $9,840.00 (using the unskilled wage) or $11,100.00 (using production worker compensation)
- relative income value of that income or wealth is $13,500.00
- relative output value of that income or wealth is $39,900.00
If you want to compare the value of a $164.56 Project in 1923 there are four choices. In 2020 the relative:
- real cost of that project is $1,970.00
- household cost of that project is $5,550.00
- labor cost of that project is $9,840.00 (using the unskilled wage) or $11,100.00 (using production worker compensation)
- relative cost of that project is $13,500.00
- economy cost of that project is $39,900.00
Source: www.measuringworth.com Samuel H. Williamson, "Seven Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1790 to present," MeasuringWorth, 2022.