Birth of the AEF Signal Corps Girls - 1918
Telephone Girl Gets Distinguished Service Medal in Germany. Miss Grace D. Banker, of Passaic, N. J., Was Recently Decorated with the Distinguished Service Medal, at Coblenz. Germany, by Lieut. Gen. Liggett, Commander of the First Army, for Her Exceedingly Meritorious and Distinguished Service in Keeping the Telephone System Open during Operations against the St. Mihiel Salient at and North of Verdun. She Is the Chief Operator of the Army Telephone Service in Germany. Southern Telephone News, July 1919. GGA Image ID # 19826e577e
Girls Needed in France
A unit of 150 telephone operators, able to speak both French and English, for immediate service in France will be formed under the direction of the Army Signal Corps.
The operators, enlisted for the duration of the war, will be given the allowances of quarters and rations accorded many nurses in addition to their pay and also will wear the same uniform.
In seeking recruits for the new service the announcement of the chief signal officer says:
“Young ladies physically fit with command of the French and English language, desirous of obtaining these positions should apply by mail to Room 826 Mills Building annex, Washington.’’
-- Telephone Engineer, January 1918, p. 4
Uniforms for Operators
Telephone operators are needed for duty abroad with the American forces; young women who are physically fit, who speak both French and English fluently, and who are willing to be sent abroad.
It is preferred they should have had experience in telephone switchboard operating, but opportunity to learn this will be offered in case an insufficient number apply who are skilled in both telephony and French.
The women selected will have uniforms of the same olive-drab as worn by officers and men in the army. The unit of telephone operators now being organized is the only unit composed of women which will actually wear army insignia.
The uniform will include the army campaign hat, with the signal corps hat-cord, a long olive- drab cape, a medium-length coat on the same general lines as the present army service coat, an English walking-skirt, and tan shoes.
The salaries offered range from fifty dollars for substitutes, sixty dollars for local operators and toll operators, and seventy-two dollars for supervisors, to a hundred and twenty-five dollars for chief operators, plus, in each instance, rations and quarters as accorded army nurses.
Transportation will be furnished from their homes to Washington, and of course from Washington to the point abroad to which they will be sent.
-- Telephone Engineer Management, February 1918, p. 91
Chicago Girls for France
Over the vitally important war telephone lines of the United States army “over there” soon will echo the voices of Chicago girl operators.
A number of these girls are finishing intensive training for the work at a suburban station of the Chicago Telephone Company. Within a short time they will depart for the east and a ship bound for France.
Among the young women are Misses Marjorie Thomas, Drucilla Palmer, Louise Beraud, Mellicent Martin, Annie L. Gernon, Lillian R. Verkler and Evelyn Thomas.
The first requisite of a volunteer is that she speak French fluently. Five of the seven named have lived in France from two to five years, and the two others studied the language at the University of Chicago.
In France they will be the only women to wear regulation uniforms, with hat cords and arm brassards.
Evidence of their patriotism in volunteering for the service is offered by what they are giving up here.
One surrenders a position with a real estate firm paying more than most men of her age earn ; another an established studio of art; one a lucrative private secretaryship, and another her senior year at the University of Chicago, with private tutoring engagements.
“We are fitted for the work, and want to do our bit,” they say.
As previously announced, the Signal Corps is making a call for girls to go to France. Here is a sample of what the American operators may hear :
“Les deux fils sont en contact; isolez No. 1, ferons de meme ici ; nous permettra employer fil No. 2 en attendant enlevement du contact.”
Meaning in wire parlance :
“Both wires in contact; free No. 1; will do same here. This will enable us to work on wire No. 2 while defect is being removed.”
And the girls must learn that to “faire un branchement” is to tap a wire, and many other things that don’t come through the local exchange on ordinary days.
The American telephone lines in France not only connect the military forces of this country but connect directly with the French government system, and unless the operator has a very good stock of French she need not try the job.
The Government wants girls who have resource and initiative, who could “go it alone” if need be, and over a hundred girls have already been accepted for the work. As fast as the girls can be found they will be trained, either at home or in some training center and then sent over to help win the war.
The girls will wear a uniform prescribed by the War College, and they will say farewell to all other kinds of dresses from the day they start work until it’s over Over There. Operators will wear a white brassard with a black telephone transmitter on it. Supervisors will have a gilt laurel wreath under the transmitter, and the chief operator will have in addition the gilt lightning belts of the Signal Corps.
Operators will get $60 a month, supervisors $72 and chief operators $125. Rations and quarters are to be given in addition to the pay.
All chief operators in local telephone exchanges will give information to applicants, and blanks can be procured for application from the Chief Signal Officer of the army, Room 826 Mills Building Annex, Washington.
-- Telephone Engineer Management, March 1918, p. 130
Operators for France
The first group of thirty-three operators to be sent to France are ready for service. They will be attached to the Signal Corps, reporting to the Chief Signal Officer, and will occupy a unique position in the American military organization.
The group includes one chief operator, four supervisors and twenty-four operators. The blue uniforms and the hat, on which is worn the Signal Corps hat cord, were specified by the War College at Washington. The ranking of the operators is indicated by the devices embroidered on the white brassard, which is worn in accordance with the requirements of international law, as the operators are non-combatants.
On the brassard worn by a junior operator is embroidered a black telephone transmitter. The brassard of a supervisor has a laurel wreath underneath the transmitter, and the brassard of a chief operator has the two symbols mentioned, surmounted by a streak of lightning in yellow.
The second unit includes thirty-seven young women recruited from telephone exchanges from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Although ten states are represented in the second unit, New York, Illinois and California furnished most of its members. The Chicago women who are awaiting orders to go are: Millicent Martin, Helen R. Orb, Drusilla Balmer, Evelyn Thomas and Marjorie Thomas.
-- Telephone Engineer Management, April 1918, p. 204
Telephone Operators Wanted
Applications are in order for the immediate services of telephone operators for department service at Washington, D. C. The necessity is urgent and applications will be received from now until further notice. The salaries will range from $660 to $720. Applicants will be required to answer but two questions, the amount of education which will count 30 points, and the experience, which will count 70 points, making 100 counts in all.
Competitors will be rated upon the sworn statement in their application and upon the corroborative evidence adduced by the commission. Applicants must have the equivalent of six grades of common school and must have had at least one year’s experience as an operator in a large central office or at least two years’ experience in any other branch exchange. Applications should be properly executed, excluding the medical and county officers’ certificates, and filed with the civil service commission at Washington, D. C.
-- Telephone Engineer Management, April 1918, p. 204
Girls Join Signal Corps
A new unit of Signal Corps telephone operators is composed of twenty-eight young women in charge of Miss Nellie F. Snow, chief operator, formerly a chief operator for the New England Telephone & Telegraph Company in Lowell, Mass. Two supervisors are attached to the unit, Miss Marie L. Beraud of West Hoboken, N. J., and Miss Elizabeth E. Roby of Chicago.
Seven members of the unit are from California, six from Massachusetts, five from Illinois, four from New York State, three from New Jersey and one each from Washington, Minnesota and Ohio.
The operators are:
- Miss Marie B. Belanger of Rochester, New York
- Miss Suzanne M. Beraud of West Hoboken, New Jersey
- Miss Michele F. Blane of Boston, Massachusetts
- Miss Marie L. Bousquet of San Francisco, California
- Miss Suzanne Coheleauh of Astoria, Long Island, New York
- Miss Lucille de Jersey of Covina, California
- Miss Miriam de Jersey of Covina, California
- Miss Frances des Jardins of New York, New York
- Miss Maria Flood of Chicago, Illinois
- Miss Yvonne M. Cauthier of Lowell, Massachusetts
- Miss Louisette N. Gavard of Newark, New Jersey
- Miss Blanche Grand-Maitre of Minneapolis, Minnesota
- Miss Adele L. Hoppock of Seattle, Washington
- Miss Bertha M. Hunt of Berkeley, California
- Miss Margaret Hutchins of New York, New York
- Miss Janet R. Jones of Newark, Ohio
- Miss Hope Kervin of San Francisco, California
- Miss A. Maude McMullen of Fitchburg, Massachusetts
- Miss Margaret H. Milner of Berkeley, California
- Miss Eugenie Racicot of Lowell, Massachusetts
- Miss Dorothy L. Sage of Evanston, Illinois
- Miss Martha Steinbrunere of San Francisco, California
- Miss Bertha J. Verkler of Chicago, Illinois
- Miss Lillian R. Verkler of Chicago, Illinois
- Miss Bertha Wuilloumier of Boston, Massachusetts
-- Telephone Engineer Management, May 1918, p. 259
Our Girls Over There
To the 100 girls from America now doing service as military telephone operators in France, 150 more in training schools here may soon be added, leaving a reserve force of 400 more on file out of about 8,000 applications. The young women who have been accepted for this work have undergone tests as severe as those to which a soldier at the front is subjected.
The telephone exchanges often are only a short distance behind the trenches, and the operator must possess both courage and calmness under dangerous circumstances.
' “These girls,” said Capt. E. J. Wesson, who recruited the unit, “are going to astound the people over there by their efficiency. In Paris it takes forty to sixty seconds to complete one call. Our girls are equipped to handle 300 calls an hour.”
Other reports that have reached the war department from France show that the American hello girl is making good rapidly in a task as difficult as is-to be found back of the front line trenches.
The first group of operators entered training school in Chicago on January 12 for instruction in advanced telephony. They received practice in the largest New York exchanges and were then tried out at military cantonments. The course included talks upon personal hygiene.
The first contingent sailed on March 2. Other groups sailed in March and April and were stationed at supply depots and debarkation bases.
In addition to speaking both French and English fluently, every one of these girls has stood a loyalty test which proved that she could be trusted with military information.
The uniform consists of a coat and skirt of navy blue serge, shirtwaist of navy blue Palm Beach cloth and straight-brimmed hat of blue felt with the regulation orange and white cord of the signal corps. White cord on the left sleeve is used to designate their rank, as operator, supervisor, chief operator and so on.
-- Telephone Engineer Management, July 1918, p. 49
Independents Help Signal Corps Recruiting
Extract from the Report of the Secretary of the Eastern Independent Traffic Association to the National Convention by H. E. Bradley
The Keystone Telephone Company, of Philadelphia, having offered the use of its school room, we started two classes in local operating work on March 11, with a total of 30 girls.
One class was held Monday, Wednesday and Friday evenings and the other Tuesday and Thursday evenings and Saturday afternoons.
The first session opened at 7 and was dismissed at 9:30, but at all succeeding sessions most of the girls had assembled by 6 o’clock and we almost had to drive them away from the school.
After two weeks of instruction in this evening school, 11 of these girls passed a rigid examination in local operating with an average of 90 per cent or better, two of them having a rating of 100 per cent and several others coming very close to the mark, 'fliese girls were then transferred to the long distance class and others were advanced as soon as they could pass the necessary examination.
After some five weeks of instruction in long distance work they were sworn in on May 9 and are now a part of the Signal Corps. On May 15 they were put into the exchanges of the United Telephone & Telegraph Company to acquire actual experience under all sorts of operating conditions.
Some are in the large exchanges while some are on rural lines, and they have been moved about until all are thoroughly familiar with all kinds of equipment.
Their training is about finished and they will soon be going over, where Captain Vivian will take them in hand, and as they trained according to the rules published by the United States Independent Telephone Association, we have every reason to believe that he will be proud of them.
Over 200 operators are now in France, and at the present these units are closed, but there is no doubt in my mind that if more are called for the Independents will be asked to furnish their share.
In the beginning I stated that the various committees had failed to make detailed reports of their work to our Washington office. There should be on file, today, in Mr. MacKinnon’s office a complete record of every man or woman who has entered any branch of government service from an Independent telephone company.
Only by such a record could he intelligently lay before the proper officials a report showing the activities of this organization.
-- Telephone Engineer, August 1918, p. 68.
How the Signal Corps Organized 100 Girls
Army Telephone Operators in France Speak Both English and French
THE Division on Woman's War Work, Committee on Public Information, issues the following:
Owing to the problems which the use of two languages presented to the American troops in France, and the necessity of accurate intercommunication between the American and the French Armies, the Signal Corps has sent abroad 100 trained women telephone operators, who speak both French and English fluently, to work in military telephone exchanges in bases of supplies and points of embarkation. During 1917, men operators and French women were used for this work. Neither group proved satisfactory.
Gen. Pershing Cables Request
Therefore, in the early part of November, a cablegram was sent to the Signal Corps of the United States Army by Gen. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, recommending that, on account of the great difficulty in obtaining properly qualified men, a force of women telephone operators speaking French and English equally well should be organized and sent to France.
He required 3 chief operators at $125 a month, 9 supervising operators at $72 a month, 24 long-distance operators at $60 a month, 54 operators at $60 a month, 10 substitute operators at $50 per month, total 100. All should have the allowances of Army nurses and should be uniformed.
Capt. E. J. Wesson, civilian personnel section of the Signal Corps, who is experienced in recruiting emergency groups of trained workers, was given charge of the proposed unit. Capt. W. S. Vivian was made responsible for the housing and general welfare of the operators in France.
Small Percentage Qualified
Thinking that it might be possible to obtain telephone operators with equal command of both languages in parts, of the country with large numbers of French inhabitants, an effort was first made to obtain the group from Montreal, Canada, and Louisiana.
The announcement was placed in French-Canadian papers, with the result that from 300 to 400 women applied. Out of these only 6 could be considered.
The announcement was then made to the press of the country and to telephone companies. A list of 2,400 applications was received, which yielded the names of 2 experienced operators who could speak both languages, and 25 possible éligibles.
To this date 7,600 applications have been received. Besides the 100 that have been sent over, 150 fully equipped are now in training schools to meet a possible demand, and a list of 400 as a reserve force is on file.
Classified in Groups
The group of 100 is composed for the most part of French girls who have come to America or American girls who have lived in France. The unit was sent in groups of 3 of about 30 each. Groups No. 1 and 2 are made up of experienced telephone operators.
Group No. 3 consists of girls who have been given intensive emergency training in telephony. For the most part these girls come from New York State. California and Massachusetts sent the next largest numbers. Seventy-two per cent are Americans: 28 per cent are foreign born—French, Belgian, Canadian, English, Swiss, and Dutch East Indian.
Under existing laws wives of Army officers and enlisted men who are liable for duty abroad are not eligible for membership in this unit.
An unauthorized statement, which appeared in many papers, saying that a unit of telephone girls was to be organized, and that many women whose husbands were officers had thus found a way to go abroad, occasioned an enormous number of applications and met with an emphatic denial from the Signal Corps.
Rigid Tests Required
Upon filling out the application blanks which asked for facts about age, nationality, knowledge of French and English, previous telephone experience, and health, and which demanded a promise to serve for the duration of the war, the candidate whose answers indicated satisfactory qualifications was given examination by the manager of the local telephone company, who had been authorized by the Signal Corps.
A full report on the ability and character of the applicant was submitted to a board of experts in New York. A psychologist gave tests to the prospective operators similar to the methods used by the Army in examining officers.
Also, since the work which the unit would perform was of a confidential military nature, and would give the members important knowledge of the movements of troops, their loyalty, and motives for applying for service were thoroughly investigated by Secret Service agents.
Began Training 12 January 1918
On January 12 the first group entered the training schools to be trained in advanced telephony. Practice was then given in the largest private branch exchange in New York, followed by three days’ work in cantonment telephone exchanges, to acquire familiarity with military terms.
During the period of training military drill was given the women every day. Lectures were delivered to them by officers of the Signal Corps upon the duties of that branch of the Army and its traditions.
The importance of the lines of communication in modern warfare was explained, and the various duties of the divisions of the Signal Corps were outlined. Talks upon personal hygiene were given by women surgeons.
On March 2 the first contingent sailed, and later in the month American officers in France were agreeably surprised by hearing over the military telephones operators who used American terms, gave splendid service, and who could translate the message of a French officer to an American officer, or vice versa. A second group sailed on March 16, and a third during the latter part of April. They were stationed in groups of 10 in American bases of supplies and points of embarkation.
The members of the Woman’s Telephone Unit were required to pass strict health examinations and were inoculated and vaccinated in the same manner as American soldiers.
Out of 60 girls who were inoculated not one fainted. An officer who has seen many soldiers meet the same experience said this was most unusual.
The uniform was designed and prescribed by the War College. It consisted of a blue coat and skirt made of navy blue serge, strictly tailor made; tailored shirt waist of navy blue palm beach cloth or similar material; and straight-brimmed hat of blue felt, with the official orange and white hat cord of the Signal Corps.
The brassard on the left sleeve of the coat is of white whipcord or doeskin, bearing small devices indicating the status of chief operator, supervisor, and operator.
“It would be impossible to brigade an American troop without these girls,” Capt. Wesson, who has recruited the unit, states. “They are going to astound the people over there by the efficiency of their work.
In Paris it takes from 40 to 60 seconds to complete one telephone call. Our girls are equipped to handle 300 calls an hour. The English Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, the “Waaca,” are doing similar work, but they are not equipped with fluent knowledge of French, and the American system of telephony has always been better than the European one.
Personnel of the Unit
The personnel of the Woman’s Telephone Unit follows :
- Melina J. Adam
- Margaret Anderson
- Eulalie I. Audet
- Grace Banker
- Julie Barrere
- Emma Marie Brousseau
- Almería Capistran
- Bertha A. Carrel
- Mrs. Inez Crittenden
- Josephine Davis
- Cordelia Dupuis
- Sara Fecteau
- Marie Louise Ford
- Anna C. Fox
- Esther Fresnel
- Marie A. Gagnon
- Lydia C. Gelinas
- Charlotte Gyss
- Darnaby Henton
- Matina Heymen
- Derise Ingram
- Ethel Keyser
- Florence F. Keyser
- Marie S. La Blanc
- Leontine Lamoureux
- Nellie Martin
- Mrs. Pauline MacDermott
- Kathleen Mitchell
- Minerva G. Nadeau
- Helen A. Naismith
- Frances Paine Bigelow
- Drucilla Palmer
- Lawrence Helene Pechin
- Bertha Plamondon
- Suzanne Prevot
- Minnie R. Richards
- Katharine Play Robinson
- Olive M. Shaw
- Marion A. Taylor
- Evelyn Thomas
- Isabelle Villiers
- Ethelyn White
- Mrs. Clara Whitney
- Margaret S. Bleyers
- Jeanne Bouchet
- Martha L. Carrel
- Louise Essirard
- Anns LeBorde
- Louise Le Breton
- Raymond Le Breton
- Marie Antonette Neyrat McEntyre
- Renne Messelin
- Marie Ponsolle
- Georgette Schaerr
- Albertine Asrents
- Edith Dodson
- Martha Libert
- Estelle L. Caron
- Jean Cunningham
- Amallem Jackson
- Agnes M. Theriault
- Winifred Hardy
- Elizabeth Hunter
- Alice V. Ward
- Helen F. Perreton
- Dee Van Balkom
- Suzanne M. Béraud
- Louisette H. Gravard
- Margaret Hutchins
- Lucille De Jersey
- Bertha M. Hunt
- Margaret H. Milner
- Martha Steinbruner
- Marie Floyd
- Dorothy L. Sage
- Bertha H. Verkler
- Lillian V. Verkler
- Yvonne M. Gauther
- Eugenie Racicot
- Maude Mc Lowell
- Michele F. Blanc
- Marie B. Belanger
- Marie L. Bousquet
- Suzanne Coheleach
- Frances Des Jardins
- Blanche Grand Maitre
- Adele L. Hoppock
- Janet R. Jones
- Hopo Kerkin
- Miriam De Jersey.
-- Telephone Engineer Management, August 1918, pp. 69-70
Girl Operators Replace Jackies
Naval officials at Great Lakes, Ill., have come to the conclusion girls make better telephone operators than men. Therefore the twenty-one yeomen who have been acting as operators are to be succeeded by fifteen expert “hello girls.”
Where the sailors worked in three shifts a (lay of seven men each, the girls will do the same work in three shifts of five.
The girls were selected from the best operators at the city exchanges of the Chicago Telephone Company. They have just completed a two weeks’ period of special training for the particular needs of naval telephone business.
They are employed as civilian workers, and not enlisted as “yeomanettes.” The twenty-one yeomen whose places they are taking will soon be sent for active service as seamen aboard ship, which is a second reason for employing girls, to follow Secretary Daniels’ order to eliminate “land sailors” wherever possible.
The girls’ first shift went to work Saturday night, August 24, immediately after the central telephone office of the naval station was transferred from its quarters in the administration building to the new post office building, near the main gate.
An up to date twelve position switchboard is installed in the new exchange. The girls will handle all the calls of 46,000 enlisted men and officers.
The average is 12,600 calls every twenty-four hours, and the maximum is about 15,000 a day. There are 525 telephones at the station.
Hundred French-Speaking Operators Wanted—Rush!
THAT the success of General Pershing’s heavy blows against the Hun line has been materially aided by the almost superhuman resourcefulness of men in the United States Signal Corps, is the story brought back from France by every returning officer.
The telephone branch of the Signal Service has covered itself with glory, time and again. The “Stars and Stripes” in a recent issue featured a front-page story whose headlines give some idea of the stirring account that followed:
Is everybody Safe? No, Not Exactly, but Holding On
Soldiers of the Telephone Precede Infantry in Hill 230 Attack
Wires Alone Keep Pace
“Brigade Terrible” Runs Ahead of Guns and Supplies, but Can’t Lose Signal Corps It is not only in the battle areas that the telephone units of the Signal Corps are giving distinguished service, for a vast network of American telephone lines link every outpost to every center of the vast United States military and naval organization in Europe.
At the present time the Signal Corps needs 100 additional men who speak French fluently for service as switchboard operators. French-speaking men without previous experience in telephony will be accepted, trained in this country, and sent to France without delay.
This is an unusual opportunity for men eager to be in at the finish of Kaiserdom, giving, as it does, a chance to join a highly specialized arm of the service and to “go over” without months of training and waiting on this side.
Applications should be sent at once, by telegram or letter, to the Chief Signal Officer, Washington, D. C. They should state the applicant’s name, age, qualification—ability to converse in French is paramount—together with his present status in the draft and the name and address of his draft board.
-- Telephone Engineer, November 1918, p. 196
They’re here and there. They say “seventy-five” instead of “sixty-fifteen” as the French ones do. They say “Hold the wire” instead of “Attendez un moment”; “General Pershing” instead of “le General Peurchigne,” and “Thahnkew!” instead of “Mairrsee!” In short, it seems like home to hear them talking over the wires.
The original 33 of the phonettes’ expeditionary forces have made good on their jobs. Equally at home in French and English, they juggle the two languages about with marvelous dexterity, and all without disturbing a back comb. Their work is important work. We wonder how we got along without them all this time.
But, best of all, they never say, “A dollar and a half extra, please! You talked with the young lady for three-quarters of an hour overtime.”
In the first place, they attend to calls on army business only. In the second, there aren’t any dollar-and-a-halfs in France. So they haven’t a chance to deliver that irritating message of bygone days.
Our relations are wholly pleasant. We thank them.—The Stars and Stripes, published in France.
-- Telephone Engineer, November 1918 p. 233
Girls in France Protest Nicknames
American telephone girls in France have registered the same kind of protest against nicknames that the soldiers have, the YWCA War Work Council announced.
The War Department has transmitted their protest against the “hello girls” appellation. Hereafter, according to an official statement, they are to be known as the Woman’s Telephone Unit of the American Signal Corps.
The homes for these girls have been opened by the YWCA, one at 32 Rue Hamelin, Paris, formerly the Hotel Ferras, in charge of Mrs. Lulu Erick Taylor, of Detroit, and the other at Tours, formerly the Hotel Moderne, in charge of Miss Elizabeth F. Fox, of New York.
The girls operate typical American telephone exchanges installed by American telephone men and handle all telephone connections for the American Expeditionary Forces between headquarters and the different bases.
The homes and foyers provided for the girls were all established by the YWCA War Work Council under the supervision of the Commission on Training Camp Activities.
-- Telephone Engineer, November 1918 p. 233
Condolences to Grace D. Banker on Father's Death
The sympathy of the chapter is extended to our “soldier,” Grace Banker, who lost her father in July. Grace has been in France at General Headquarters for six months, and is proudly wearing her first service stripe. The Signal Corps girls are winning all sorts of praise for their good work, and Grace, as head supervisor of the first unit, deserves the greater part of the praise.
Fredericka Belknap’s brother has been stationed at G. H. Q. for several months, and reports that Grace looks unusually well. The girls are located in a very attractive Hostess House, equipped with every convenience. American girls are so scarce in France, that they are more than popular with the officers at Headquarters, and they eagerly attend the occasional dances which the girls give.
At the last report Grace had been “renewing her youth” bicycling with the aforesaid Gamma Phi brother. Letters from home are eagerly welcomed, and she would dearly love to hear from Gamma Phis. Address her, Chief Operator Grace D. Banker, Telephone Unit, U. S. Signal Corps, General Headquarters, A. P. O. 706, American Expeditionary Forces, France.
-- The Crescent of Gamma Phi Beta, Vol. 18, No. 4, October 1918, p. 450