Scientific American - 16 July 1904
Front Page of the Scientific American for 16 July 1904. GGA Image ID # 1015cef67f
On the Cover: The Festival Hall, The Central and Dominating Structure of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, (See Page 46 for the article and additional photographs)
Featured Articles for the 16 July 1904 issue of Scientific American includes Borax and Food, A Novel Air Compressor, An Apparatus for Preventing Seasickness, The Plans for the New Manhattan Bridge, The New White Star Liner "Baltic," and Much More.
Mr. Schlick and His Model of an Apparatus for Reducing the Rolling of a Ship. Scientific American (16 July 1904) p. 40. GGA Image ID # 1016090c19
AN APPARATUS FOR PREVENTING SEASICKNESS.
BY DR. ALFRED GRADENWITZ.
The pitching of a ship in a rough sea is undoubtedly a severe drawback both to the physical welfare of passengers and crew and to the expedition of any work made on board.
While any endeavors made to prevent or to diminish pitching have so far been in vain, the rolling may be acted against efficiently by increasing on the one hand the period of the lateral oscillations as far as possible, and decreasing on the other the amplitude of oscillation after an inclination has been produced by an impinging wave.
No apparatus has, however, been so far designed for obtaining both of these actions at the same time. A high period of oscillation may be obtained by increasing the moment of inertia and diminishing the metacentric height. As, however, this means can be resorted to only within narrow limits, the results obtained are rather weak.
The primary means of limiting the oscillation amplitude, on the other hand, is the use of drift-keels and water chambers. A very intelligent device presented by Mr. Thornycroft to the Institution of Naval Architects in the spring of 1892 should be mentioned in this connection.
Now, Mr. O. Schlick, a well- known naval engineer of Hamburg, Germany, has brought out an ingenious apparatus designed at the same time to increase the period of oscillation of the rolling movements considerably and to diminish the amplitude of oscillation.
This apparatus is based on the gyroscopic effect of a flywheel mounted in a peculiar manner on board a steamer and caused to rotate rapidly. The vertical axis of the apparatus is so located as to be able to move pendulum-like in the focal plane of the ship.
The permanent and rapid oscillations of the wheel will result in rendering the ship insensible to the effect of the wave motion, the rolling movements being practically eliminated.
As the device will exert an energetic impact even with the smallest lateral oscillations of the ship, a propagation of the motion, resulting in a robust oscillating movement, will be impossible, whereas any drift-keels so far used do not act before the rolling movement has become marked.
The underlying principle of the apparatus is the fact that a rotating body will oppose to any inclination of its axis a resistance the higher as its rotation is more rapid and its weight more considerable.
The diagram shows a flywheel. In a large frame, RR, rotating on a horizontal axis at right angles to the longitudinal direction of the ship utilizing two pivots, zz, there is mounted the vertical axis of the flywheel A, caused to rotate rapidly by an electric motor.
As the forces producing the rolling movement of a ship are by no means excessive (in fact, twenty to twenty- five men running in proper time from one side of the deck of a large steamer to the other are known to cause the latter to perform considerable rolling movements) the weight of the flywheel in a ship 6,000 tons in weight need not be higher than 10 tons with a diameter of 4 meters (13.12 feet). The apparatus will, therefore, be especially available for use on steamers of moderate dimensions.
The Bland Air Compressor Used for Mining and Braking Purposes. Scientific American (16 July 1904) p. 40. GGA Image ID # 10162ef915
The air compressor is now so universally used for mining and braking purposes, that it would seem as if it had reached the stage of completeness for economical work. It appears, however, improvements have been invented whereby it is thought the efficiency of the compressor as compared with the steam pressure employed is considerably increased.
The compressor shown in the accompanying illustration is constructed upon an entirely different principle from those in ordinary use, that is, the steam power is transmitted from the crank of the steam engine through what is termed a floating beam and toggle joints to two direct single-acting air-compressing cylinders.
1904-07-16 Scientific American, Vol. XCL - No. 3 - Article on An Apparatus for Preventing Seasickness; The New White Star Liner "Baltic" - The Largest Vessel In the World (last article uploaded see White Star Line index)